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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs


Academic S&E Article Output per $1 Million of Academic R&D


Quartiles

Academic S&E article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2008
 
1st quartile
(4.88 – 3.62)
2nd quartile
(3.59 – 3.11)
3rd quartile
(3.09 – 2.75)
4th quartile
(2.66 – 1.98)
 
Connecticut Florida Alabama‡ Alaska‡
Delaware‡ Idaho‡ Arizona Hawaii‡
Illinois Kansas‡ Arkansas‡ Louisiana‡
Indiana Kentucky‡ California Maine‡
Iowa Missouri Colorado Maryland
Massachusetts New York District of Columbia Mississippi‡
Michigan North Carolina Georgia Montana‡
Minnesota Oklahoma‡ Nebraska‡ New Hampshire‡
New Jersey Oregon Nevada‡ New Mexico‡
Pennsylvania Tennessee Ohio North Dakota‡
Rhode Island‡ Virginia South Carolina‡ South Dakota‡
Utah Washington Texas West Virginia‡
Vermont‡ Wyoming‡ Wisconsin
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: Thomson Reuters, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/; The Patent Board™; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures. See Data Table.



Findings

  • From 1998 to 2008, the number of academic S&E publications rose from about 138,000 to about 168,000—an increase of 22% that may reflect both an increase in publications and an increase in the size of the journal set.
  • In 2008, academic researchers produced an average of 3.2 publications per $1 million of academic R&D, compared with 5.4 in 1998. This partly reflects the effect of general price inflation but may also indicate rising academic research costs.
  • Between 1998 and 2008, the value for this indicator decreased in all states but one and by 40% nationwide.
  • EPSCoR states tended to cluster in the lower quartiles for this indicator.


Description

This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic S&E publications and expenditures for academic R&D. A high value for this indicator means that the S&E publications output of a state's academic institutions is high relative to their R&D spending. Academic institutions include 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, medical schools, and university-affiliated research centers. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions. It may also reflect variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles that appear in a set of journals tracked by Thomson Scientific in the Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. Academic article output is based on the most recent journal set; data for earlier years may differ slightly from previous publications due to changes in the journal set. Articles with authors from different institutions were counted fractionally. For instance, for a publication with authors at N institutions, each institution would be credited with 1/N of the article.

In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at the Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 workers and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies. It does not focus on academic research.

Data Table

Table 8-43
Academic S&E article output per $1 million of academic R&D, by state: 1998, 2003, and 2008
 
  Academic S&E article output   Academic R&D
(current $millions)
  Academic articles/
$1 million academic R&D
State 1998 2003 2008   1998 2003 2008   1998 2003 2008
 
United States 138,147 148,722 167,852   25,772 39,999 51,784   5.36 3.72 3.24
Alabama 1,829 1,851 1,974   442 551 708   4.14 3.36 2.79
Alaska 157 195 285   76 142 111   2.05 1.37 2.56
Arizona 1,960 2,152 2,455   406 618 831   4.83 3.48 2.95
Arkansas 568 664 716   117 184 247   4.85 3.61 2.90
California 17,056 18,744 21,001   3,392 5,358 7,026   5.03 3.50 2.99
Colorado 2,467 2,615 2,855   489 695 924   5.04 3.76 3.09
Connecticut 2,793 2,748 3,070   407 595 732   6.87 4.62 4.20
Delaware 499 580 650   73 105 133   6.86 5.54 4.88
District of Columbia 1,089 1,061 1,106   233 281 369   4.68 3.78 3.00
Florida 4,085 4,551 5,678   713 1,205 1,592   5.73 3.78 3.57
Georgia 3,061 3,640 4,299   804 1,177 1,521   3.81 3.09 2.83
Hawaii 511 572 697   148 185 279   3.45 3.10 2.50
Idaho 273 305 360   72 105 113   3.77 2.91 3.17
Illinois 6,399 6,959 7,662   1,031 1,614 1,973   6.21 4.31 3.88
Indiana 2,884 3,022 3,645   426 726 954   6.77 4.16 3.82
Iowa 2,147 2,220 2,232   359 499 528   5.99 4.45 4.23
Kansas 1,117 1,235 1,292   213 310 404   5.24 3.98 3.20
Kentucky 1,245 1,434 1,604   242 378 506   5.16 3.80 3.17
Louisiana 1,794 1,759 1,753   354 514 660   5.07 3.42 2.66
Maine 242 267 285   35 84 128   6.87 3.19 2.23
Maryland 4,412 4,946 5,453   1,330 2,041 2,747   3.32 2.42 1.98
Massachusetts 8,722 9,445 10,834   1,348 1,822 2,272   6.47 5.18 4.77
Michigan 4,610 5,071 5,804   883 1,390 1,594   5.22 3.65 3.64
Minnesota 2,279 2,287 2,634   368 518 699   6.20 4.42 3.77
Mississippi 613 710 840   153 324 406   4.01 2.19 2.07
Missouri 3,037 3,122 3,443   485 807 960   6.27 3.87 3.59
Montana 299 363 396   77 141 186   3.91 2.57 2.13
Nebraska 1,002 991 1,115   186 301 376   5.38 3.30 2.96
Nevada 358 458 571   84 155 191   4.27 2.97 2.99
New Hampshire 594 627 683   117 252 302   5.07 2.49 2.26
New Jersey 2,813 3,150 3,326   485 754 877   5.80 4.17 3.79
New Mexico 724 792 835   229 307 417   3.17 2.58 2.00
New York 11,977 12,179 13,378   1,930 3,078 4,045   6.21 3.96 3.31
North Carolina 4,803 5,321 6,170   900 1,398 1,981   5.34 3.81 3.11
North Dakota 263 315 411   57 134 181   4.62 2.36 2.28
Ohio 4,902 5,088 5,635   810 1,268 1,827   6.05 4.01 3.08
Oklahoma 871 933 1,081   209 295 333   4.17 3.16 3.24
Oregon 1,531 1,648 1,972   314 437 595   4.87 3.77 3.31
Pennsylvania 7,839 8,260 9,419   1,349 2,015 2,604   5.81 4.10 3.62
Rhode Island 814 871 1,020   112 187 237   7.27 4.65 4.31
South Carolina 1,170 1,428 1,587   248 435 576   4.71 3.28 2.75
South Dakota 127 165 202   25 50 92   5.00 3.30 2.20
Tennessee 2,176 2,310 2,826   347 600 787   6.28 3.85 3.59
Texas 8,388 9,423 10,755   1,697 2,765 3,744   4.94 3.41 2.87
Utah 1,511 1,538 1,786   249 385 426   6.07 3.99 4.20
Vermont 359 383 475   59 107 117   6.13 3.60 4.06
Virginia 2,891 2,991 3,593   497 776 1,053   5.81 3.85 3.41
Washington 3,049 3,412 3,605   543 871 1,058   5.61 3.92 3.41
West Virginia 396 375 417   64 125 171   6.17 2.99 2.44
Wisconsin 3,059 3,129 3,445   536 878 1,117   5.71 3.56 3.08
Wyoming 192 204 255   49 60 75   3.95 3.40 3.41
                       
Puerto Rico 189 212 265   88 78 100   2.16 2.70 2.64
 

NA = not available

SOURCES: Thomson Reuters, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/; The Patent Board™; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010