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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs


Academic Patents Awarded per 1,000 S&E Doctorate Holders in Academia


Quartiles

Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2006
 
1st quartile
(24.7 – 11.1)
2nd quartile
(10.8 – 7.3)
3rd quartile
(6.9 – 5.2)
4th quartile
(4.9 – 0.0)
 
Arkansas‡ Alabama‡ Colorado Alaska‡
California Arizona Delaware‡ Kansas‡
Florida Connecticut District of Columbia Maine‡
Iowa Georgia Hawaii‡ Montana‡
Maryland Illinois Idaho‡ Nevada‡
Massachusetts Kentucky‡ Indiana New Mexico‡
Michigan Minnesota Louisiana‡ North Dakota‡
New Hampshire‡ Missouri Mississippi‡ Rhode Island‡
New Jersey Nebraska‡ Oregon South Dakota‡
New York Ohio South Carolina‡ Vermont‡
North Carolina Oklahoma‡ Tennessee West Virginia‡
Texas Pennsylvania Virginia
Wisconsin Utah Washington
Wyoming‡
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities-Utility Patent Grants; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. See Data Table.



Findings

  • Throughout the United States, the number of patents awarded to academic institutions increased from about 2,500 in 1997 to about 3,400 in 2006, an increase of 36%; the number of academic S&E doctorate holders rose by 18% during the same period.
  • In 2006, 11.6 academic patents were produced nationally for each 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, slightly higher than the 10.1 patents produced in 1997.
  • In 2006, states varied widely on this indicator, with values ranging from 0 to 24.7 patents per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, indicating a difference in patenting philosophy or mix of industries with which these academic institutions deal.
  • California showed the highest level of both academic patenting and venture capital investment.


Description

Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the role of academic R&D in creating new products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is the volume of academic patents awarded. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.

This indicator is an approximate measure of the degree to which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic workforce. Academia includes 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, medical schools, and university-affiliated research centers. Utility patents—commonly known as patents for inventions—include any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound, and represent a key measure of intellectual property.

S&E doctorates include those in computer sciences; mathematics; biological, agricultural, or environmental life sciences; physical sciences; social sciences; psychology; engineering; and health fields. S&E doctorate data derive from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients, which excludes those with doctorates from foreign institutions and those above the age of 75. The Survey of Doctorate Recipients is a sample survey. Estimates for states with smaller populations are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations. Data for S&E doctorate holders are presented by employment location regardless of residence.

Data Table

Table 8-44
Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia, by state: 1997, 2001, and 2006
 
  Patents awarded to academic institutions   S&E doctorate holders in academiaa   Academic patents/
1,000 academic S&E doctorate holders
State 1997 2001 2006   1997 2001 2006   1997 2001 2006
 
United States 2,482 3,282 3,382   245,670 261,780 290,730   10.1 12.5 11.6
Alabama 23 40 27   4,640 3,050 3,430   5.0 13.1 7.9
Alaska 2 0 0   450 530 580   4.4 0.0 0.0
Arizona 21 17 34   3,050 3,340 4,010   6.9 5.1 8.5
Arkansas 8 28 25   1,520 1,640 1,940   5.3 17.1 12.9
California 436 693 719   26,050 26,790 29,070   16.7 25.9 24.7
Colorado 32 31 29   4,550 5,120 5,540   7.0 6.1 5.2
Connecticut 34 37 51   4,000 4,420 4,770   8.5 8.4 10.7
Delaware 4 5 5   750 840 950   5.3 6.0 5.3
District of Columbia 28 13 15   2,210 2,840 2,580   12.7 4.6 5.8
Florida 96 106 171   6,850 8,250 9,590   14.0 12.8 17.8
Georgia 45 75 80   5,780 6,450 7,750   7.8 11.6 10.3
Hawaii 6 4 10   1,380 1,570 1,670   4.3 2.5 6.0
Idaho 6 6 10   780 980 1,490   7.7 6.1 6.7
Illinois 81 109 122   10,620 11,090 11,860   7.6 9.8 10.3
Indiana 39 17 32   4,680 5,710 6,190   8.3 3.0 5.2
Iowa 51 67 52   3,100 3,220 3,530   16.5 20.8 14.7
Kansas 7 18 4   2,260 2,270 2,600   3.1 7.9 1.5
Kentucky 16 20 28   3,040 3,240 3,610   5.3 6.2 7.8
Louisiana 26 42 23   3,580 3,470 3,470   7.3 12.1 6.6
Maine 0 2 5   1,340 1,200 1,210   0.0 1.7 4.1
Maryland 66 114 136   6,400 6,100 7,590   10.3 18.7 17.9
Massachusetts 188 218 234   11,810 13,390 14,980   15.9 16.3 15.6
Michigan 104 105 120   7,850 8,820 9,410   13.2 11.9 12.8
Minnesota 50 65 62   4,490 5,540 5,730   11.1 11.7 10.8
Mississippi 6 12 14   1,940 2,000 2,020   3.1 6.0 6.9
Missouri 40 55 42   5,770 5,710 5,750   6.9 9.6 7.3
Montana 4 4 6   1,020 810 1,230   3.9 4.9 4.9
Nebraska 27 21 19   2,360 1,960 1,900   11.4 10.7 10.0
Nevada 2 4 4   980 1,260 1,620   2.0 3.2 2.5
New Hampshire 3 10 18   1,130 1,240 1,270   2.7 8.1 14.2
New Jersey 52 81 80   5,290 5,860 6,500   9.8 13.8 12.3
New Mexico 19 17 9   2,450 2,910 2,220   7.8 5.8 4.1
New York 224 282 284   20,900 21,770 23,110   10.7 13.0 12.3
North Carolina 96 148 131   7,740 9,050 10,310   12.4 16.4 12.7
North Dakota 5 4 4   900 660 970   5.6 6.1 4.1
Ohio 75 93 86   9,750 9,920 10,620   7.7 9.4 8.1
Oklahoma 17 22 27   2,680 2,800 2,890   6.3 7.9 9.3
Oregon 27 23 20   2,690 3,250 3,620   10.0 7.1 5.5
Pennsylvania 138 213 147   12,150 13,590 16,210   11.4 15.7 9.1
Rhode Island 9 19 9   1,730 1,730 2,040   5.2 11.0 4.4
South Carolina 14 14 22   3,230 3,030 3,720   4.3 4.6 5.9
South Dakota 2 2 2   700 640 690   2.9 3.1 2.9
Tennessee 25 42 37   4,720 4,800 5,640   5.3 8.8 6.6
Texas 125 155 191   13,760 14,270 17,170   9.1 10.9 11.1
Utah 38 48 35   3,080 3,100 3,580   12.3 15.5 9.8
Vermont 3 3 4   1,140 1,050 1,050   2.6 2.9 3.8
Virginia 49 41 48   5,830 7,180 8,050   8.4 5.7 6.0
Washington 42 56 42   5,410 6,390 7,190   7.8 8.8 5.8
West Virginia 2 4 2   1,190 1,150 1,320   1.7 3.5 1.5
Wisconsin 65 74 102   5,390 5,210 5,970   12.1 14.2 17.1
Wyoming 4 3 3   560 570 520   7.1 5.3 5.8
                       
Puerto Rico 0 5 2   640 1,070 1,270   0.0 4.7 1.6
 

aCoefficients of variation for estimates of S&E doctorate holders in academia presented in appendix table 8-14.

SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities—Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969–2006; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010