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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Science and Technology in the Economy


Venture Capital Disbursed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product


Quartiles

Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product: 2008 (Dollars)
 
1st quartile
($8.15 – $1.15)
2nd quartile
($1.14 – $0.48)
3rd quartile
($0.43 – $0.19)
4th quartile
($0.17 – $0.00)
 
California Arizona District of Columbia Alabama‡
Colorado Connecticut Florida Alaska‡
Maryland Delaware‡ Idaho‡ Arkansas‡
Massachusetts Georgia Iowa Hawaii‡
Minnesota Illinois Kansas‡ Louisiana‡
New Hampshire‡ Indiana Kentucky‡ Mississippi‡
New Jersey Michigan Maine‡ Nevada‡
North Carolina New Mexico‡ Missouri North Dakota‡
Pennsylvania New York Montana‡ Oklahoma‡
Utah Ohio Nebraska‡ South Carolina‡
Vermont‡ Oregon Tennessee South Dakota‡
Virginia Rhode Island‡ West Virginia‡ Wyoming‡
Washington Texas Wisconsin
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree Survey™, special tabulations; and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.



Findings

  • The total amount of venture capital invested in the United States increased from about $21 billion in 1998 to about $28 billion in 2008, an overall increase of 34%. However, this was a decade of great volatility, as U.S. venture capital investment peaked at $106 billion in 2000.
  • Venture capital is concentrated in relatively few states. Companies in California received 50% of the total venture capital disbursed in the United States in 2008, followed by companies in Massachusetts with 11%.
  • The distribution of venture capital is becoming more concentrated, making it more difficult for companies in many states to access this type of financing. Thirty-five states reported lower values for this indicator in 2008 than in 1998.
  • The average indicator value for EPSCoR states was substantially lower than that of non-EPSCoR states. The state distribution of venture capital was similar to indicators of high-technology business activity.


Description

Venture capital represents an important source of funding for startup companies. It supports the growth and expansion of these companies early in their development, before they establish a predictable sales history that would qualify them for other types of financing.

This indicator shows the relative magnitude of venture capital investments in a state after adjusting for the size of the state's economy. The indicator is expressed as dollars of venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product. High values indicate that companies in those states are successfully attracting venture capital to fuel their growth. Access to venture capital financing varies greatly among states.

Data Table

Table 8-50
Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 1998, 2003, and 2008
 
  Venture capital disbursed
(current $millions)
  State GDP (current $millions)   Venture capital ($)/
$1,000 GDP
State 1998 2003 2008   1998 2003 2008   1998 2003 2008
 
United States 21,037 19,776 28,284   8,679,660 10,886,172 14,165,565   2.42 1.82 2.00
Alabama 82 30 24   106,656 130,210 170,014   0.77 0.23 0.14
Alaska 0 0 0   23,165 31,219 47,912   0.00 0.00 0.00
Arizona 210 73 208   137,581 182,011 248,888   1.53 0.40 0.84
Arkansas 7 1 0   61,861 75,685 98,331   0.11 0.01 0.00
California 7,955 8,564 14,264   1,085,884 1,406,511 1,846,757   7.33 6.09 7.72
Colorado 726 628 813   143,160 187,397 248,603   5.07 3.35 3.27
Connecticut 373 212 127   145,373 169,885 216,174   2.57 1.25 0.59
Delaware 0 0 63   36,831 48,587 61,828   0.00 0.01 1.01
District of Columbia 47 56 31   51,682 71,719 97,235   0.91 0.78 0.32
Florida 552 309 240   417,169 559,021 744,120   1.32 0.55 0.32
Georgia 431 295 426   255,612 317,922 397,756   1.68 0.93 1.07
Hawaii 4 13 7   37,549 46,441 63,847   0.11 0.28 0.11
Idaho 30 52 12   29,800 38,148 52,747   1.02 1.37 0.23
Illinois 429 377 444   423,855 510,296 633,697   1.01 0.74 0.70
Indiana 39 25 124   178,909 215,434 254,861   0.22 0.11 0.48
Iowa 9 0 40   83,665 102,210 135,702   0.11 0.00 0.30
Kansas 10 25 46   76,005 93,560 122,731   0.14 0.27 0.37
Kentucky 38 5 30   108,813 124,892 156,436   0.34 0.04 0.19
Louisiana 68 1 8   118,085 146,726 222,218   0.58 0.01 0.04
Maine 62 1 20   31,731 40,152 49,709   1.94 0.02 0.41
Maryland 328 348 477   161,954 213,306 273,333   2.03 1.63 1.74
Massachusetts 2,009 2,744 2,974   236,079 293,840 364,988   8.51 9.34 8.15
Michigan 124 80 246   309,431 359,030 382,544   0.40 0.22 0.64
Minnesota 361 233 491   164,897 208,179 262,847   2.19 1.12 1.87
Mississippi 4 1 0   60,513 72,259 91,782   0.06 0.01 0.00
Missouri 611 78 87   164,267 195,547 237,797   3.72 0.40 0.36
Montana 0 0 16   19,884 25,526 35,891   0.00 0.00 0.43
Nebraska 29 205 16   52,076 64,628 83,273   0.56 3.17 0.19
Nevada 24 40 13   63,635 87,828 131,233   0.38 0.46 0.10
New Hampshire 185 154 181   39,102 48,198 60,005   4.73 3.20 3.02
New Jersey 476 886 708   314,117 389,077 474,936   1.52 2.28 1.49
New Mexico 8 4 69   45,918 57,469 79,901   0.17 0.06 0.87
New York 1,299 660 1,299   686,906 850,243 1,144,481   1.89 0.78 1.14
North Carolina 327 387 459   242,904 306,018 400,192   1.34 1.26 1.15
North Dakota 1 15 0   16,936 21,672 31,208   0.03 0.67 0.01
Ohio 309 179 248   348,723 402,399 471,508   0.89 0.44 0.53
Oklahoma 101 31 17   79,341 103,452 146,448   1.28 0.30 0.12
Oregon 54 108 176   100,951 121,638 161,573   0.53 0.88 1.09
Pennsylvania 562 499 693   361,800 440,704 553,301   1.55 1.13 1.25
Rhode Island 26 66 39   29,537 39,357 47,364   0.88 1.66 0.83
South Carolina 137 14 26   102,945 127,885 156,384   1.33 0.11 0.17
South Dakota 0 4 1   20,771 27,418 36,959   0.00 0.13 0.01
Tennessee 108 84 65   160,872 200,279 252,127   0.67 0.42 0.26
Texas 1,171 1,250 1,283   629,209 828,797 1,223,511   1.86 1.51 1.05
Utah 117 107 194   60,168 75,428 109,777   1.94 1.41 1.76
Vermont 1 5 43   15,935 20,575 25,442   0.09 0.25 1.69
Virginia 766 413 484   226,569 302,540 397,025   3.38 1.37 1.22
Washington 736 464 955   195,794 240,813 322,778   3.76 1.92 2.96
West Virginia 2 13 24   39,500 46,452 61,652   0.05 0.27 0.39
Wisconsin 90 38 75   160,681 195,904 240,429   0.56 0.19 0.31
Wyoming 0 0 2   14,859 21,685 35,310   0.00 0.00 0.04
                       
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   54,086 74,827 NA   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

GDP = gross domestic product

SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree™ Survey, special tabulations; Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010