Table 4-20
Expenditures on R&D as share of gross domestic product for all R&D, nondefense R&D, and basic research, by selected country/economy: 2009 or most recent year
 
Country/economy All R&D/GDP Nondefense R&D/GDP Fraction of all (%) Basic research R&D/GDP Fraction of all (%)
 
United States (2009)a 2.88 2.3 81 0.55 19
China (2009) 1.70 NA NA 0.08 5
Japan (2009) 3.33 3.3 99 0.42 13
Germany (2008) 2.68 2.6 97 NA NA
France (2008) 2.11 1.9 90 0.54 26
South Korea (2008) 3.36 3.2 95 0.54 16
United Kingdom (2009) 1.85 1.7 92 0.21 11
           
Russian Federation (2009) 1.24 NA NA 0.25 20
India (2007) 0.76 NA NA NA NA
Italy (2009) 1.27 1.3 102 0.33 26
Canada (2009) 1.92 NA NA NA NA
Brazil (2008) 1.08 NA NA NA NA
Taiwan (2009) 2.93 2.9 99 0.30 10
Spain (2008) 1.35 1.3 96 0.23 17
 

NA = not available

GDP = gross domestic product

aFigures for United States in this table reflect international standards for calculating gross expenditures on R&D, which vary slightly from NSF protocol for tallying U.S. total R&D.

NOTES: Top 14 countries globally in annual gross expenditures on R&D. Year of data listed in parentheses.

SOURCE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators (2011/1). Data for Brazil and India from United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx, table 26, accessed 13 July 2011.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012