Table 4-21
Gross expenditures on R&D by performing sector, by selected country/economy: 2009 or most recent year
(Percent)
 
Country/economy Business Government Higher education Private nonprofit
 
United States (2009)a 70.3 11.7 13.5 4.4
China (2009) 73.2 18.7 8.1 0.0
Japan (2009) 75.8 9.2 13.4 1.6
Germany (2009) 67.5 14.9 17.6 **
France (2009) 61.9 16.3 20.6 1.2
South Korea (2008) 75.4 12.1 11.1 1.4
United Kingdom (2009) 60.4 9.2 27.9 2.5
         
Russian Federation (2009) 62.4 30.3 7.1 0.2
India (2007) 33.9 61.7 4.4 **
Italy (2009) 51.5 13.9 31.4 3.2
Canada (2009) 51.7 10.1 37.6 0.6
Brazil (2004) 40.2 21.3 38.4 0.1
Taiwan (2008) 70.1 16.8 12.8 0.4
Spain (2009) 51.9 20.1 27.8 0.2
 

** = included in other performing sectors

aFigures for the United States in this table reflect international standards for calculating gross expenditures on R&D, which vary slightly from NSF protocol for tallying U.S. total R&D.

NOTES: Top 14 R&D performing countries. Year of data listed in parentheses. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.

SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators (2011/1). Data for Brazil and India from United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx, table 27, accessed 18 July 2011.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012