EU = European Union; USPTO = U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
NOTES: Clean energy and pollution control technologies include alternative energy, energy storage, smart grid, and pollution mitigation. Alternative energy includes solar, wind, nuclear, bioenergy, hydropower, wave/tidal/ocean, geothermal, and electric/hybrid. Energy storage includes batteries, compressed air, flywheels, superconductivity, magnet energy systems, ultracapacitors, hydrogen production and storage, and thermal energy. Pollution mitigation includes recycling; control of air, water, and solid waste pollution; environmental remediation; cleaner coal; and capture and storage of carbon and other greenhouse gases. Technologies classified by The Patent Board™. Patent grants fractionally allocated among regions/countries on basis of proportion of residences of all named inventors. EU includes current member countries. Activity index consists of ratio of region/country's share of indicated technology to region/country's share of total grants. A ratio of greater than one signifies more active patenting in the selected technology; a ratio of less than one signifies less active patenting.
SOURCE: The Patent Board™, special tabulations (2011) of Proprietary Patent database. See appendix tables 6-66–6-84.
Science and Engineering Indicators 2012