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Chapter 2. Higher Education in Science and Engineering


Baccalaureate-origin institution: The college or university from which an S&E doctorate recipient earned a bachelor’s degree.

Credit mobility: Short-term, for-credit foreign study and exchange programs that last less than a full school year.

Degree or diploma mobility: For-credit foreign study programs in which students pursue a higher education degree outside their usual country of residence.

European Union (EU): As of June 2013, the European Union comprised 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Croatia joined the EU in July 2013. Unless otherwise noted, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data on the EU include all 28 members; data on the EU from other sources are limited to the 27 nations that were members as of June 2013.

First university degree: A terminal undergraduate degree program; these degrees are classified as level 5A first university in the International Standard Classification of Education, which is developed by UNESCO, although individual countries use different names for the first terminal degree (e.g., corso di Laurea in Italy, diplom in Germany, licence in France, and bachelor’s degree in the United States and in Asian countries).

G20: Group of Twenty brings together finance ministers and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the EU.

Internationally mobile students: Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for purposes of education and are now enrolled outside their countries of origin. This term refers to degree mobility in data collected by UNESCO/UNESCO Institute for Statistics, OECD, and Eurostat and excludes students who travel for credit mobility.

Natural sciences: Include agricultural; biological; computer; earth, atmospheric, and ocean; and physical sciences and mathematics.

Net price: The published price of an undergraduate college education minus the average grant aid and tax benefits that students receive.

Net tuition revenue: Total revenue from tuition and fees (including grant and loan aid used by students to pay tuition); excludes institutional student aid that is applied to tuition and fees.

Tertiary-type A programs: Higher education programs that are largely theory based and designed to provide sufficient qualifications for entry to advanced research programs and to professions with high skill requirements, such as medicine, dentistry, or architecture. These programs have a minimum duration of 3 years, although they typically last 4 or more years and correspond to bachelor’s or master’s degrees in the United States.

Tertiary-type B programs: Higher education programs that focus on practical, technical, or occupational skills for direct entry into the labor market and have a minimum duration of 2 years. These programs correspond to associate’s degree programs in the United States.

Underrepresented minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians and Alaska Natives are considered to be underrepresented minorities in S&E.