European Union (EU): As of June 2013, the EU comprised 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Croatia joined the EU in July 2013. Unless otherwise noted, OECD data on the EU include all 28 members; data on the EU from other sources are limited to the 27 nations that were members as of June 2013.
Involuntarily out of field (IOF) employment: Employment in a job not related to the field of one’s highest degree because a job in that field was not available. The IOF rate is the proportion of all employed individuals that report IOF employment.
Labor force: A subset of the population that includes both those who are employed and those who are not working but seeking work (unemployed); other individuals are not considered to be in the labor force.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 34 countries headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. Among its many activities, the OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected non-member countries.
Postdoc: A temporary position awarded in academia, industry, government, or a non-profit organization, primarily for gaining additional education and training in research after completion of a doctorate.
Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): A system of three surveys conducted by the National Science Foundation that measure the educational, occupational, and demographic characteristics of the S&E workforce. The three surveys are the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG), the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR), and the National Survey of Recent College Graduates (NSRCG).
Stay rate: The proportion of foreign recipients of U.S. S&E doctoral degrees who stay in the United States after receiving their doctorate.
Tertiary education: Roughly equivalent in U.S. terms to individuals who have earned at least technical school or associate’s degrees, including all degrees up to the doctorate.
Workforce: A subset of the labor force that includes only employed individuals.