References

Aerospace Industries Association of America. 1994. Aerospace Facts and Figures, 1994-95. Washington, DC.

American Association for theAdvancement of Science (AAAS). 1994. Research and Development: FY 1995. Annual Series. Washington, DC.

Bean, A.S. 1994. "Investing in R&D." Presented at Managing Investment in Research and Development, a workshop sponsored by theAustralian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, Canberra, Australia, July 17-18.

-----1995. "Why Some R&D Organizations Are More Productive Than Others." Research Technology Management 38(1), Jan./Feb.

Bureau ofEconomic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Annual. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Operations of U.S. Parent Companies and their Foreign Affiliates. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----. Annual. Foreign Direct Investment in the United States:Operations of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Companies. Washington, DC: GPO.

Bush, V. 1945. Science - The Endless Frontier: A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation(reprinted 1980).

Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. 1992. Science and Technology in U.S. International Affairs. New York.

Clinton, W.J., and A. Gore. 1993. Technology for America's Economic Growth, A NewDirection to Build Economic Strength. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President, February 22.

-----. 1994. Science and the National Interest. Washington, DC: Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Coburn, C. (editor). 1995.Partnerships: A Compendium of State and Federal Cooperative Technology Programs: 1995. Columbus, OH: Batelle Press.

Dalton, D.H., and M.G. Serapio, Jr. 1993. U.S. Research Facilities of Foreign Companies. NTIS PB93-134328.Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.

-----. Forthcoming. U.S. Research Facilities of Foreign Companies: An Update. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.

Department of Defense. 1994. Defense S&TPolicy. Washington, DC: The Pentagon.

-----. 1995a. Dual Use Technology: A Defense Strategy for Affordable, Leading Edge Technology. Washington, DC: The Pentagon.

-----. 1995b. RDT&E Programs (R-1): DOD Budget for Fiscal Year1996. Washington, DC: The Pentagon.

-----. 1995c. Department of Defense Response to NSTC/ PRD1, Presidential Review on an Interagency Review of Federal Laboratories, February 24, 1995; Department of Defense, Draft Interim Report tothe National Science and Technology Council, Presidential Review Directive 1, October 12, 1994; Defense Science Board, Laboratory Management Interim Report, background for the Base Closure and Realignmnt 1995 (BRAC 95 Addendum), April 3,1995. Collectively, these three reports are known as the Dorman Report.

Department of Energy. 1995a. Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories. (Galvin Report). Washington, DC:February.

-----. 1995b. EnergyR&D: Shaping our Nation's Future in a Competitive World. (Yergin Report). Washington, DC.

Department of Health and Human Services. 1993. NIH Data Book: 1993. 93-1261. Bethesda, MD: Public Health Service and National Institutes ofHealth.

Dezhina, I. 1994. Financing Russian Science: Searching for Flexibility. Occasional papers of the Georgetown University Russian Area Studies Program, No. 7. Washington, DC.

European Commission. 1994. The European Report onScience and Technology Indicators: 1994. Brussels, Belgium.

General Accounting Office. 1994. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development GAO/PEMD-95-2. Washington, DC.

-----. 1995a.Budget Function Classification: Relating Agency Spending and Personnel Levels to Budget Functions. GAO/AIMD/GGD-95-69FS. Washington, DC.

-----. 1995b. Budget Function Classification: Agency Spending and Personnel Levels for Fiscal Years1994 and 1995. GAO/AIMD-95-115FS. Washington, DC.

-----. 1995c. Budget Function Classification: Agency Spending by Subfunction and Object Category, Fiscal Year 1994. GAO/AIMD-95-116FS. Washington, DC.

Government of the Federal Republicof Germany. 1993. Report of the Federal Government on Research 1993. Abridged Version. Bonn:Federal Ministry for Research and Technology.

Hagedoorn, J. 1990. "Organizational Modes of Inter-firm Co-operation and Technology Transfer."Technovation 10(1): 17-30.

-----. 1995. "Strategic Technology Partnering During the 1980s: Trends, Networks, and Corporate Patterns in Non-core Technologies." Research Policy 24: 207-231.

Hagedoorn, J., and J. Schakenraad.1993. "Strategic Technology Partnering and International Corporate Strategies." European Competitiveness. Edited by Kirsty Hughes. Cambridge, MA: CUP: 60-86.

Industrial Research Institute. 1995a. "Industrial ResearchInstitute's Annual R&DTrends Survey." Research Technology Management 38(1):14-16.

-----. 1995b. IRI Strategic Planning Process for 1996- 2000. Washington, DC.

-----. 1996. "Industrial Research Institute's R&DTrends Forecast for 1996." Research Technology Management 39(1): 15-17.

Institute for the Future. 1995. The Future of America's Research-Intensive Industries. Menlo Park, CA.

International Science Policy Foundation. 1993.Outlook on Science Policy 15(1):9-62.

Irvine, J., B.R. Martin, and P.A. Isard. 1990. Investing in the Future: An International Comparison of Government Funding of Academic and Related Research. Sussex, England: Science Policy ResearchUnit.

Jankowski, J.E. 1993. "Do We Need a Price Index for Industrial R&D?" Research Policy 22: 195-205.

Klein, S.J., and N. Rosenberg, 1986. "An Overview of Innovation."In R. Landau and N. Rosenberg (eds.) The PoitiveSum Strategy. Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth. Washington, DC:National Academy Press, p. 289.

Link, A.N. 1995. Research Joint Ventures: Patterns for Federal Register Filings. Interim report. Greensboro:The University of NorthCarolina.

Martin, B.R., and J. Irvine. 1992. "Trends in Government Spending on Academic and Related Research: An International Comparison." Science and Public Policy, October: 311-319.

Mataloni, R.J. Jr. 1995. "U.S.Multinational Companies: Operations in 1993." Survey of Current Business. June: 31-51.

Meyer-Krahmer, F. 1992. "The German R&D System in Transition: Empirical Results and Prospects of Future Development." Research Policy21: 423-436.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1995. Federal Laboratory Review Task Force, NASA Advisory Council, NASA Federal Laboratory Review (Foster Report). Washington, DC: February.

National Institutes of Health. 1995.A Review of the Intramural Program of the National Cancer Institute (Bishop/Calabresi Report) Bethesda, MD:June 26.

-----. 1994. The Intrumural Research Program. (Cassell/ Marks Report). Bethesda, MD: April 11.

National ScienceBoard. 1992. The Competitive Strength of U.S. Industrial Science and Technology: Strategic Issues. NSB 92-138. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----. 1993. Science & Engineering Indicators - 1993. NSB 93-1. Washington, DC: GPO.

NationalScience and Technology Council. 1995a. Preparing for the Future Through Science and Technology: An Agenda for Environmental and Natural Resource Research. Washington, DC.

-----. 1995b. Bridge to a Sustainable Future: NationalEnvironmental Technology Strategy. Washington, DC.

Office of Management and Budget. 1995. "Investing in Science and Technology." Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 1996. Washington, DC: GPO.

Office of Scienceand Technology Policy. 1994. The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities:Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental Development. (Frascati Manual: 1993). Paris.

-----. 1995. National CriticalTechnologies Report. Washington, DC: GPO.

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1993. Multinationals and the National Interest: Playing by Different Rules. OTA-ITE-569. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----. 1994. Multinationals and the U.S.Technology Base. OTA-ITE-612. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----. 1995a. International Partnerships in Large Science Projects. OTA-BP-ETI-150. Washington, DC:GPO.

-----. 1995b. The Effectiveness of Research and Experimentation TaxCredits. OTA-8P-ITC-174. Washington, DC: GPO.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. 1981. The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and ExperimentalDevelopment. (Frascati Manual: 1980). Paris.

-----. 1992. OECD Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data. (Oslo Manual). Paris.

-----. 1993. Megascience and its Background. Paris.

-----.1994a. Science and Technology Policy. Paris.

-----. 1994b. The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of research and Experimental Development. (Frascati Manual: 1993). Paris.

-----. 1995. Main Science and Technology Indicators database (on diskette). Paris.

Pages, E.R. 1993. Next Steps in Business Conversion: Supporting Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Business Executives for National Security DefenseTransitions Project. Washington, DC: Business Executives for National Security.

Pollak, M. 1991. "Research and Development in the Service Sector." The Service Economy. Washington DC: Coalition of Service Industries.

Quijano, A.M.1990. "A Guide to BEA Statistics on Foreign Direct Investment in the United States." Survey of Current Business, 70(2): 29-37. Washington, DC: BEA.

Russian Center for Science Research and Statistics. 1995. Russian Science andTechnology at a Glance: 1994. Moscow.

Schweitzer, G.E. 1995. "Can Research and Development Recover in Russia?" Technology in Society 17(2): 121-42.

Science Resources Studies Division (SRS), National Science Foundation. 1989.Geographic Patterns: R&D in the United States. NSF 89-317. Washington, DC: NSF.

-----. 1993. Human Resources for Science and Technology: The Asian Region. NSF 93-303. Washington, DC: NSF.

-----. 1994. 1992 R&D Spending by U.S.Firms Rises, NSF Survey Improved. SRS Data Brief 94-317. Arlington, VA:NSF.

-----. 1995a. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1994, Final Report. NSF 95-304. Arlington, VA: NSF.

-----. 1995b. Research and Development in Industry1992. NSF 95-324. Arlington, VA: NSF.

-----. 1995c. Asia's New High-Tech Competitors. NSF 95-399. Arlington, VA: NSF.

-----. 1995d. Academic Science/Engineering: R&D Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1993. NSF 95-332. Arlington,VA: NSF.

-----. 1995e. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1993, 1994, and 1995. NSF 95-334. Arlington, VA: NSF.

-----. 1996. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function, Fiscal Years 1994-96. Arlington, VA:NSF.

Stevens, K., P. Kroll, and F. Narin. 1994. Multi-institutional Authorship Trends in U.S. Papers. Unpublished report prepared by CHI Research, Inc. for the National Science Foundation. Haddon Heights, NJ.

Stokes, D. In press.Pasteur's Quadrant. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Vonortas, N.S. 1995. Research Joint Ventures in the U.S. Washington, DC:George Washington University, unpublished.

Wolff, M.F. 1995. "Meet Your Competition: Datafrom the Annual IRI R&D Survey." Research Technology Management 38(1), Jan./Feb.


Page
Top
Previous
Section
Next
Chapter
Chap
TOC
Refs
Seind96
Home
Abbrev
Help
SRS
Home