Chapter 2:

Higher Education in Science and Engineering


Academia Europea. 1992. "School Leaving Examinations." In T. Husen, A. Tuijnman, and W.D. Halls, eds., Schooling in Modern European Society. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Advisory Committee to National Science Foundation, Education and Human Resources Directorate (NSF/EHR). 1996. Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology. NSF 96-139. Arlington, VA.

American Association of Engineering Societies, Engineering Workforce Commission. 1996. Engineering and Technology Enrollments, Fall 1979-1996. Washington, DC.

Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciónes de Educación Superior (ANUIES). 1996a. Anuario Estadístico 1995: Posgrado. Mexico.

---. 1996b. Anuario Estadístico 1995: Población Escolar de Nivel Licenciatura en Universidades e Institutos Tecnológicos. Mexico.

Astin, A.W., and H.S. Astin. 1992. "Undergraduate Science Education: The Impact of Different College Environments on the Educational Pipeline in the Sciences." Presentation at Undergraduate Education Seminar, supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. SPA-8955365, at National Research Council, December 9, 1992, Washington, DC.

Blight, D. 1996. "International Education: Australia's Potential Supply and Demand." In Institute of International Education, Open Doors, 1995-96: Report on International Education Exchange. New York.

Brey, R. 1991. "U.S. Postsecondary Distance Learning Programs in the 1990s: A Decade of Growth." Research project of the Instructional Telecommunications Consortium/American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. Washington, DC: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges.

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 1995. The Academic Profession: An International Perspective. Princeton.

Charlot, A., and F. Pottier. 1992. "France." In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, From Higher Education to Employment, Vol. III. Paris.

"Chinese Scientists Drawn Back to Asia." 1996. Nature 383 (September 5).

Chinese University of Hong Kong. 1996. Calendar 1996-97. New Territories, Hong Kong.

Choi, H. 1995. An International Scientific Community-Asian Scholars in the United States. New York: Praeger.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP). 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Feldman, J., and A. Morelle. 1994. "'Les Femmes Savantes' in France: Under the Glass Ceiling." In S. Stiver Lie, L. Malik, and D. Harris, eds., The Gender Gap, pp. 56-79. World Yearbook of Education 1994. London: Kogan Page Ltd.

Finn, M.G. 1997. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients From U.S. Universities, 1995. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.

Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. 1994. Report of the Federal Government on Research 1993. Abridged version. Bonn.

Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden. 1994. Prüfungen an Hochschulen. Reihe 4.2, Fachserie 11. Wiesbaden.

Government of France, Ministère de l'Éducation Nationale, de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche. 1996. Rapport sur les Études Doctorales. Paris.

---. 1996. Repères et Références Statistiques sur les Enseignements et la Formation. Annual series. Vanves.

Government of India, Department of Science and Technology. 1996. Research and Development Statistics, 1994-95. New Delhi.

Government of Italy, Istituto Centrale de Statistica. 1996. Statistiche dell'Istruzione: Dati Sommari dell'Anno Scolastico 1989-95. Rome.

Government of Japan, Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture (Monbusho). 1996. Monbusho Survey of Education. Annual series. Tokyo.

Government of Japan, University Division. 1995. The University Research System in Japan. Tokyo: Monbusho.

Government of the Republic of China, Ministry of Education. 1996. Educational Statistics of the Republic of China. Taipei.

Government of the Republic of Korea, Ministry of Education. 1996. Statistical Yearbook of Education. Annual series. Seoul.

Government of United Kingdom, Higher Education Statistics Agency. 1997. Students in Higher Education Institutions: 1995/96. Cheltenham.

Hayhoe, R. 1989. China's Universities and the Open Door. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Higher Education Publications (HEP). 1997. The HEP 1996 Higher Education Directory. Falls Church, VA.

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. 1996. Academic Calendar 1996-1997. Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Institute of International Education (IIE). 1996a. Open Doors, 1995-96: Report on International Education Exchange. New York.

---. 1996b. Profiles 1995-96, Detailed Analyses of the Foreign Student Population. New York.

---. 1997. Towards Transnational Competence, Rethinking International Education: A U.S.-Japan Case Study. New York.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). 1994. Digest of Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

---. 1997. Trends in Racial/Ethnic Enrollment in Higher Education: Fall 1982 Through Fall 1995. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Summary Report 1995: Doctorate Recipients From United States Universities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Science Board (NSB). 1996. Science & Engineering Indicators-1996. NSB 96-21. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Science Foundation (NSF), Science Resources Studies Division. 1993. Human Resources for Science and Technology: The Asian Region. NSF 93-303. Washington, DC.

---. 1995a. "Survey on Technical Education in 2-Year Institutions." Higher Education Survey, No. 17. Arlington, VA.

______. 1995b. "Immigrants Are 23 Percent of U.S. Residents With S&E Doctorates." Data Brief, No.15 (November 14). Arlington, VA.

---. 1996a. Human Resources for Science and Technology: The European Region. NSF 96-316. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996b. Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966-94. NSF 96-321. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996c. Science and Engineering Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients: 1977-94. NSF 96-329. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996d. Selected Data on Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 1995. NSF 96-303. Arlington, VA.

______. 1996e. Undergraduate Origins of Recent (1991-1995) Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients. NSF 96-334. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996f. Women, Minorities, and Persons With Disabilities in Science and Engineering. NSF 96-311. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997a. Global Database on Human Resources for Science. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997b. Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering, Fall 1995. NSF 97-312. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997c. The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison With the United States. NSF 97-324. Arlington, VA. Forthcoming.

______. 1997d. SESTAT-Scientists and Engineers Statistics Data System. Arlington, VA. Available from

______. 1998. Statistical Profile of Foreign Doctoral Recipients, by Major Country of Origin. Arlington, VA. Forthcoming.

______. n.d. Science and Engineering Doctorates: 1960-84. Detailed Statistical Tables. Washington, DC.

National University of Singapore. 1996. Annual Report. Singapore.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Center for Education Research and Innovation. 1996. Education at a Glance. Available from

Orleans, L.A. 1988. Chinese Students in America: Policies, Issues, and Numbers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Rung, D.C. 1997. "A Survey of Four-Year and University Mathematics in Fall 1995: A Hiatus in Both Enrollment and Faculty Increases." Notices of the AMS 44, No. 8 (September): 923-31.

Sales, R. 1997. "$25 Million Program Will Establish MIT Counterpart in Malaysia." MIT Tech Talk 41, No. 23 (March 12).

Tarsh, J. 1992. "United Kingdom." In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, From Higher Education to Employment, Vol. IV. Paris.

Teather, D.C.B., H.H. Tsang, and W.W.Y. Chan. 1997. "International Dimensions of Higher Education in Hong Kong: Progress and Prospects." Journal of Studies in International Education 1, No. 1 (spring).

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 1996. Statistical Yearbook. Paris.

University of California at Los Angeles, Higher Education Research Institute, 1997. Survey of the American Freshman: National Norms. Los Angeles.

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P-25, Nos. 519 and 917 (Washington, DC).

Von Friedeburg, L. 1991."The German Education System." Contemporary European Affairs 3, No. 4: 119-42.

World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department. 1993. Population Projections, 1992-1993 Edition. Washington, DC.

Yamamoto, S. 1995. "Research Training in Japan." In Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Research Training Present and Future. Paris.

Following are additional contacts for unpublished tabulations of international data:

Government of Austria, Austrian Central Statistical Office, Population Division. Richard Gisser. Vienna.

Government of China, National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development. Beijing.

Government of Denmark, Ministry of Education, Department of Higher Education. Lars Peter Frederiksen. Copenhagen.

Government of Finland, Central Statistical Office, Science and Technology. Mikael Akerblom. Helsinki.

Government of Greece, National Office of Statistics, Department of Social Statistics, Section on Education Statistics. Athens.

Government of Hungary, Embassy of Hungary, Science and Technology. Dr. Istvan Mezei. Washington, DC.

Government of Ireland, Irish Science and Technology Agency, and Higher Education Authority. Anne Fitzgerald. Dublin.

Government of the Netherlands, The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, Department of Statistics of Education. Frank Blom. Voorburg.

Government of Norway, Norwegian Research Council, Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education. Oslo.

Government of Poland, Polish Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education of Poland. Janusz Larek. Warsaw.

Government of Spain, National Institute of Statistics, Statistics and Indicators of Education. M. Dolores Rebollo. Madrid.

Government of Sweden, Statistics Sweden. Tage Berglund. Stockholm.

Government of Switzerland, Federal Office of Statistics, Education and Society Division, Universities and Science Section. Th. Meyer. Bern.

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