Chapter 4:

U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances


Aerospace Industries Association (AIA). 1997. Year-End Review and Forecast. Washington, DC.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 1997. Research and Development: FY 1998. Washington, DC.

Battelle Memorial Institute and the State Science and Technology Institute. Forthcoming. Survey of State Research and Development Expenditures: FY 1995. Columbus, OH.

Bean, A.S. 1995. "Comparison of Sources of R&D Funding." CIMS-Lehigh University, Industrial Research Institute briefing, April 6.

Bozeman, B., M. Papadakis, and K. Coker. 1995. Industry Perspectives on Commercial Interactions With Federal Laboratories. Report to the National Science Foundation. Atlanta.

Cahners Research. 1997. Research & Development's Basic Research Survey. Des Plaines, IL: Cahners Publishing.

Centre for Science Research and Statistics (CSRS). 1997. Russian Science and Technology at a Glance: 1996. Moscow.

Chatterji, D. 1996. "Accessing External Sources of Technology." Research Technology Management March-April.

Coburn, C., ed. 1995. Partnerships: A Compendium of State and Federal Cooperative Technology Programs. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.

Council on Competitiveness. 1996. Endless Frontier, Limited Resources: U.S. R&D Policy for Competitiveness. Washington, DC.

Dalton, D.H., and M.G. Serapio, Jr. 1993. U.S. Research Facilities of Foreign Companies. NTIS PB93-134328. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.

---. 1998. Globalizing Industrial Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration.

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European Commission. 1994. The European Report on Science and Technology Indicators: 1994. Brussels.

Gokhberg, L., M.J. Peck, and J. Gacs, eds. 1997. Russian Applied Research and Development: Its Problems and Its Promise. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

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Hagedoorn, J. 1990. "Organizational Modes of Inter-Firm Cooperation and Technology Transfer." Technovation 10, No.1: 17-30.

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Industrial Research Institute (IRI). 1997. "Industrial Research Institute's R&D Trends Forecast for 1998." Pamphlet. Washington, DC.

Industrial Research Institute, Member Company Representatives. 1997. "The 'Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face." Research Technology Management September-October: 14-15.

Institute for Biotechnology Information. 1997. U.S. Companies Database.

International Monetary Fund. 1996. International Financial Statistics Yearbook. Washington, DC.

International Science Policy Foundation (ISPF). 1993. Outlook on Science Policy 15, No.1: 9-62.

Kuemmerle, W. 1997. "Building Effective R&D Capabilities Abroad." Harvard Business Review March-April: 61-70.

Larson, C.F. 1997a. "New Challenges for Industrial R&D." In A.H. Teich, S.D. Nelson, and C. McEnaney, eds., Science and Technology Policy Yearbook. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

---. 1997b. "R&D in Industry." In American Association for the Advancement of Science, ed., AAAS Report XXII: Research & Development FY 1998. Washington, DC.

Link, A.N. 1996a. "The Classification of Industrial R&D:" Additional Findings. Report to the National Science Foundation. Greensboro, NC.

---. 1996b. "Research Joint Ventures: Patterns From Federal Register Filings." Review of Industrial Organization 11, No. 5 (October): 617-28.

Long, J. 1996. "It's All in the Eye of the Beholder." Chemical and Engineering News March 18: 22.

Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT). 1997. Cooperative Agreements and Technology Indicators database. Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Mataloni, R.J., Jr., and M. Fahim-Nader. 1996. "Operations of U.S. Multinational Companies: Preliminary Results From the 1994 Benchmark Survey." Survey of Current Business (December): 11-37.

Mintz, J. 1997. "How a Dinner Led to a Feeding Frenzy." Washington Post July 4.

Mowery, D. 1997. "The Globalization of Industrial Research and Development." Paper prepared for the Council on Foreign Relations Study Group. Mimeo. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley.

MSNBC. 1997. "ATP to Shave Big Biz Grants, Report Says." July 8.

National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington, DC.

National Academy of Sciences, Panel of FS&T Analyses. 1997. The Federal Science & Technology Budget Request: FY 1998. Washington, DC.

National Science Board (NSB). 1996. Science & Engineering Indicators-1996. NSB 96-21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

---. 1991. Science & Engineering Indicators-1991. NSB 91-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Science Foundation (NSF), Science Resources Studies Division. 1996. Federal Funds for Research and Development, Detailed Historical Tables: Fiscal Years 1956-1996. NSF 96-320. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1996. NSF 96-333. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997a. "1995 U.S. Industrial R&D Rises, NSF Survey Statistics Expanded to Emphasize Role of Non-manufacturing Industries." SRS Data Brief (November). Arlington, VA.

---. 1997b. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1995, 1996, and 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 97-327. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997c. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 1995-97. NSF 97-301. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997d. "Japan Hopes to Double Its Government Spending on R&D." Issue Brief June 13. NSF 97-310. Arlington, VA.

---. 1997e. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1997 Data Update.

---. 1998a. Academic Science and Engineering R&D Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1995. Detailed Statistical Tables. Arlington, VA. Forthcoming.

---. 1998b. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 1996-98. Arlington, VA. Forthcoming.

---. 1998c. Research and Development in Industry: 1995. Arlington, VA. Forthcoming.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1994. The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental Development. Frascati Manual. Paris.

---. 1996a. Fiscal Measures to Promote R&D and Innovation. Paris.

---. 1996b. Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 1996. Paris.

---. 1997a. Main Science and Technology Indicators database. Paris.

---. 1997b. Research and Development Expenditure by Industry: 1974-95. Paris.

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Poterba, J., ed. 1997. Borderline Case: International Tax Policy, Corporate Research and Development, and Investment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Quijano, A.M. 1990. "A Guide to BEA Statistics on Foreign Direct Investment in the United States." Survey of Current Business 70, No. 2: 29-37.

Reppy, J. 1977. "Defense Department Payments for 'Company-Financed' R&D." Research Policy 6, No. 4.

State Science and Technology Institute. 1997. State Research and Development Tax Incentives. Columbus, OH.

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---. 1997. Inside R&D June 18. Englewood, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Technology Publishing Group. 1997. The 1996 CRADA Handbook: Federal Government Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Executed in 1995. Washington, DC.

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (U.S. BEA). 1997a. Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Operations of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

---. 1997b. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Operations of U.S. Parent Companies and Their Foreign Affiliates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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U.S. Department of Commerce (U.S. DOC). 1995. Delivering Results: A Progress Report From the National Institute for Standards and Technology. Washington, DC.

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U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Technology Policy (U.S. DOC/OTP). 1996. Effective Partnering: A Report to Congress on Federal Technology Partnerships. Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Defense. 1996. Basic Research Plan. Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. HHS), Health Care Financing Administration. 1996. Health Care Financing Review 18 (Fall), No. 1.

U.S. General Accounting Office (U.S. GAO). 1994. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? GAO/PEMD-95-2. Washington, DC.

---. 1995. Manufacturing Extension Programs: Manufacturers' Views of Services. GAO/GGD-95-216BR. Washington, DC.

---. 1996a. Federal R&D Laboratories. GAO/RCED/NSIAD-96-78R. Washington, DC.

---. 1996b. Measuring Performance: The Advanced Technology Program and Private-Sector Funding. Washington, DC.

---. 1996c. Tax Policy and Administration: Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of the Research Tax Credit. GAO/GGD-96-43. Washington, DC.

---. 1997a. DOD's Small Business Innovation Research Program. GAO/RCED-97-122. Washington, DC.

---. 1997b. Fiscal Year 1996 Agency Spending by Budget Function. GAO/AIMD-97-95. Washington, DC.

---. 1997c. The Small Business Technology Transfer Program. GAO/T-RCED-97-167. Washington, DC.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget (U.S. OMB). 1997. "Promoting Research." Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy (U.S. OSTP). 1997. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC.

U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (U.S. OTA). 1995. The Effectiveness of Research and Experimentation Tax Credits. OTA-8P-ITC-174. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Small Business Administration. 1996. Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR): Annual Report. Washington, DC.

---. 1997. Small Business Innovation Development Act. Washington, DC.

Vonortas, N.S. 1997. Cooperation in Research and Development. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Ward, M. 1985. Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures in the OECD. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

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