Indicators 1998

List of Figures


Chapter 1
Elementary and Secondary Education top

1-1 Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in selected science courses, by sex
1-2 Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in science courses, by race/ethnicity
1-3 National trends in average NAEP scale scores in science at ages 9, 13, and 17
1-4 NAEP grade 8 average scores in science, by state: 1996
1-5 Average percentage correct on grade 4 TIMSS science assessment, by country: 1994-95
1-6 Average percentage correct on grade 8 TIMSS science assessment, by country: 1994-95
1-7 Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in selected mathematics courses, by sex
1-8 Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in mathematics courses, by race/ethnicity
1-9 National trends in average NAEP scale scores in mathematics at ages 9, 13, and 17
1-10 Percentage of students at or above levels 2 and 3 on NAEP mathematics assessments, by grade
1-11 NAEP grade 8 average scale scores in mathematics, by state
1-12 Average percentage correct on grade 4 TIMSS mathematics assessment, by country: 1994-95
1-13 Average percentage correct on grade 8 TIMSS mathematics assessment, by country: 1994-95
1-14 Average number of topics in mathematics textbooks in Germany, Japan, and the United States, by grade: 1994-95
1-15 Average number of topics in general science textbooks in Germany, Japan, and the United States, by grade: 1994-95
1-16 Average hours spent on homework and in watching TV, by eighth graders: 1994-95
1-17 Percentage of U.S. public schools and instructional rooms with Internet access, by proportion of minority enrollment
1-18 Percentage of science and methematics teachers implementing reform activities in their classes: 1996
1-19 Teacher beliefs about the nature and teaching of methematics and science: 1994-95
1-20 Teacher perceptions of student skills required for success in mathematics and science: 1994-95
1-21 Percentage of public secondary students taught by teachers without at least a minor in the field, by school poverty enrollment: 1993-94

Chapter 2
Higher Education in Science and Engineering top

2-1 First university degrees in S&E, by world region: 1995 or most recent year
2-2 First university degrees in S&E in three world regions: 1995 or most recent year
2-3 Trends in population aged 20-24: 1975-2005
2-4 Proportion of 24-year-olds earning NS&E degrees, by country
2-5 U.S. higher education in 1995: Students, institutions, and degrees
2-6 U.S. enrollment in higher education, by institution type
2-7 Bachelor's and master's degrees awarded in S&E, by institution type: 1995
2-8 Freshmen reporting need for remedial work in science or math, by intended major: 1995
2-9 Minority representation among freshmen planning to major in an S&E field
2-10 Representation of women and minorities in undergraduate engineering enrolments
2-11 Bachelor's degrees awarded in S&E
2-12 Bachelor's degrees awarded in S&E, by sex
2-13 Graduate enrollment in S&E, by sex
2-14 Graduate S&E enrollment for selected groups
2-15 Foreign student enrollment in graduate engineering programs
2-16 S&E doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. universities
2-17 NS&E doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. universities to U.S. and foreign citizens
2-18 S&E doctoral degrees awarded to Asian students by Asian and U.S. universities
2-19 Asian recipients of NS&E doctorates from U.S. universities with firm plans to stay in the United States
2-20 Foreign-born S&E faculty in U.S. higher education, by field: 1993
2-21 Proportion of NS&E doctoral degrees earned by foreign students in selected countries: 1995 or most recent year

Chapter 3
Science and Engineering Workforce top

3-1 Changes in employment status of recent S&E Ph.D.s between 1993 and 1995
3-2 Percentage of Ph.D.s in postdoctorate positions, by years since degree: 1995
3-3 Unemployment rates of scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and highest degree received: 1995
3-4 Age distribution of employed scientists and engineers, by highest degree received: 1995
3-5 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and highest degree received: 1995
3-6 Proportion of women in the S&E workforce, by broad occupation: 1995
3-7 Women as a proportion of employed scientists and engineers, by sector of employment: 1995
3-8 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and sex: 1995
3-9 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-10 Distribution of service sector S&E jobs, by major industry group
3-11 Engineering employment in the service sector, by major industry group
3-12 Permanent visas issued to immigrant scientists and engineers
3-13 Scientists and engineers engaged in R&D per 10,000 labor force, by country
3-14 U.S. scientists and engineers engaged in R&D, as a percentage of the G-7 total
3-15 S&E jobs, by broad occupation: 1996 and projected 2006

Chapter 4
U.S. and International Research and Development Funds and Alliances top

4-1 National R&D funding, by source
4-2 National R&D expenditures: 1997
4-3 National R&D expenditures, by source of funds
4-4 Federal R&D support, by performing sector
4-5 U.S. industrial R&D expenditures, by source of funds
4-6 National R&D funding, by performer
4-7 National R&D expenditures, by source of funds, performing sector, and character of work: 1997
4-8 The federal share of total U.S. funding of basic research, applied research, and development
4-9 Number of U.S. biotechnology companies
4-10 Consolidation of the U.S. aerospace industry into the "big three"
4-11 Total nonfederal R&D funding as a percentage of net sales for all manufacturing industries
4-12 R&D share of the federal budget
4-13 Projected federal R&D obligations, by agency and character of work: 1997
4-14 National R&D obligations, by selected agency
4-15 Growth in R&D consortia registered under the National Cooperative Research and Production Act
4-16 Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles relationships
4-17 Advanced Technology Program funding
4-18 Japanese and German R&D expenditures and annual changes in R&D estimates
4-19 U.S. and other G-7 countries' R&D expenditures
4-20 Rates of change in total R&D spending for selected countries
4-21 R&D as a percentage of GDP for G-7 countries
4-22 R&D as a percentage of GDP for the Russian Federation and Central European countries
4-23 R&D expenditures, by country, performer, and source: Mid-1990s
4-24 Share of industry domestic R&D financed from foreign sources
4-25 Distribution of R&D by character of work in selected countries: 1995
4-26 Government R&D support, by country and socioeconomic objective: 1995-96
4-27 Difference in U.S. performer-reported versus agency-reported federal R&D
4-28 Federal R&D funding, by budget function
4-29 Small Business Innovation Research awards, by technology area: 1983-95
4-30 R&E tax credits: Total and percentage of government R&D outlays
4-31 New international strategic technology alliances, by technology and world region
4-32 New international strategic technology alliances, by technology and world region
4-33 Balance in U.S. and foreign industrial R&D investment flows
4-34 U.S. flows of industrial R&D, by world region
4-35 Ratio of U.S. overseas R&D to company-financed domestic R&D, by industry
4-36 U.S. R&D performed abroad
4-37 U.S. industrial R&D financed by majority-owned foreign firms: Share of total and sources of funds

Chapter 5
Academic Research and Development:
Financial and Personnel Resources, Integration With Graduate Education, and Outputs up

5-1 Academic R&D, research, and basic research as a proportion of U.S. totals
5-2 National and academic R&D expenditures, by character of work and performer: 1997
5-3 Sources of academic R&D funding
5-4 Academic R&D expenditures, by field
5-5 Distribution of federal agency academic research obligations, by field: FY 1995
5-6 Major agency field shares of federal academic research obligations: FY 1995
5-7 Funding sources for new construction and repair/renovation of S&E research space, by type of institution: 1994-95
5-8 Percentage of S&E research space newly constructed between 1986 and 1995, by field: 1996
5-9 Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions, by field
5-10 Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions, by field
5-11 Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions, by field
5-12 Age distribution of full-time doctoral S&E faculty
5-13 Age distribution of full-time doctoral S&E faculty at research universities and other academic institutions
5-14 Age distribution of full-time doctoral S&E faculty at research universities and other academic institutions
5-15 Number of recent Ph.D.s in academic S&E, by type of position
5-16 Academic doctoral scientists and engineers and those with research responsibility
5-17 Support for full-time S&E graduate students
5-18 Percentage of full-time S&E graduate students with Federal Government as primary source of support, by primary mechanism of support
5-19 Percentage of full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as primary mechanism of support, by field
5-20 Relative importance of research assistantships as primary mechanism of support for full-time S&E graduate students and new S&E Ph.D.s, by field: 1995
5-21 Percentage of research assistants whose primary source of support is the Federal Government, by field
5-22 Field distribution of research assistantships with primary support from a federal agency, by agency: FY 1995
5-23 Research assistantships supported primarily by the Federal Government, agency shares by S&E field: FY 1995
5-24 Research assistantships supported primarily by the Federal Government, agency shares by S&E field: FY 1995
5-25 Research assistantships supported primarily by the Federal Government, agency shares by S&E field: FY 1995
5-26 Scientific and technical article output of selected countries, per billion U.S. dollars of GDP: 1995
5-27 Distribution of selected countries' and regions' scientific and technical articles, by field: 1995
5-28 Percentage of internationally coauthored articles involving one or more U.S. authors, for selected countries
5-29 Citations in selected countries' scientific and technical literature to U.S., own, and major regions' articles: 1995
5-30 Number of citations on U.S. patents to U.S. scientific and technical articles
5-31 Number of universities and colleges granted patents
5-32 Number of academic patents granted
5-33 Percentage of total academic patents in three utility classes

Chapter 6
Industry, Technology, and Competitiveness in the Marketplace top

6-1 International economic comparisons
6-2 Global sales of manufactured products
6-3 High-tech industries' share of total manufacturing output
6-4 Country share of global high-tech market
6-5 U.S. global market share, by high-tech industry
6-6 Global market share, by country and high-tech industry: 1995
6-7 High-tech exports
6-8 Export market share: 1995
6-9 Apparent consumption of high-tech products
6-10 Import share of domestic high-tech markets
6-11 U.S. trade balance in top three advanced technology products
6-12 U.S. trade balance of royalties and fees
6-13 U.S. royalties and fees generated from the exchange of industrial processes between unaffiliated companies: 1995
6-14 Percent shares of total industrial R&D in OECD countries
6-15 Industrial R&D performance
6-16 U.S. patents granted, by nationality of inventor
6-17 U.S. patents granted to foreign inventors, by nationality of inventor
6-18 Share of total patents awarded to nonresident inventors
6-19 Patents granted to nonresident inventors: 1994
6-20 Robot technology: Number of international patent families, by priority year and country
6-21 Genetic engineering: Number of international patent families, by priority year and country
6-22 Advanced ceramics technology: Number of international patent families, by priority year and country
6-23 U.S. venture capital: Total under management, annual commitments, and disbursements
6-24 U.S. venture capital disbursements, by industry category
6-25 U.S. venture capital disbursements, by stage of financing
6-26 European venture capital disbursements, by stage of financing
6-27 Leading indicators of technological competitiveness: 1996

Chapter 7
Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding top

7-1 Indices of public interest in selected policy issues
7-2 Indices of public interest in and self-assesed knowledge about scientific and technological issues, by sex and level of education: 1997
7-3 Indices of public informedness on selected policy issues
7-4 Public attentiveness to selected policy issues
7-5 Attentiveness to science and technology policy, by sex and level of education: 1997
7-6 Public understanding of scientific terms and concepts: 1997
7-7 Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding, by sex, level of education, and attentiveness to science and technology: 1997
7-8 Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding
7-9 Public understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry: 1997
7-10 Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding in 14 countries
7-11 Support for government funding of basic scientific research, by level of general support for or reservations about science and technology: 1997
7-12 Public confidence in leadership of selected institutions
7-13 Public assessment of scientific research
7-14 Public assessment of nuclear power
7-15 Public assessment of genetic engineering
7-16 Public assessment of space exploration
7-17 Public use of selected information sources: 1997
7-18 Mean number of hours per year of television and radio use: 1997
7-19 Public use of selected information sources, on an annual basis: 1997
7-20 Percentage of adults with access to a computer at work or home, by educational level
7-21 Percentage of U.S. adults with one or more home computers: 1997
7-22 Percentage of U.S. adults with one or more e-mail addresses: 1997
7-23 Estimated number of U.S. adults seeking specific information on the World Wide Web, by subject area: 1997

Chapter 8
Economic and Social Significance of Information Technologies top

8-1 Technological components of an information processing system
8-2 Real net stock of IT equipment in the private sector
8-3 Number of World Wide Web users
8-4 Number of individuals per Internet server, for selected countries: 1996
8-5 Percentage of elementary and secondary schools with 15 or more computers
8-6 Sectoral shares of U.S. GDP
8-7 Change in share of U.S. GDP, by type of service industry: 1959-94
8-8 Changing share of U.S. service industries in total U.S. employment
8-9 Percentage of workers who use a computer at work, by selected industry: 1993
8-10 Index of IT investments, by industry: 1991-92
8-11 IT investments by the banking industry
8-12 Commercial banks output per employee
8-13 U.S. electronic funds transfer volume
8-14 Academic library access to electronic resources: 1996
8-15 Number of K-12 students per computer, by state: 1995-96
8-16 Diffusion of IT in U.S. public schools: 1996
8-17 Percentage of K-12 schools with Internet access, by state: 1996
8-18 Number of telecommuters in the United States
8-19 Student use of computers at school, by grade level and race/ethnicity: 1993
8-20 Computer-related experience of college-bound seniors, by sex, race/ethnicity, and computing applications: 1996
8-21 Student use of computers at school, grades 1-8, by level of household income: 1993
8-22 Level of Internet access in schools by student body income level: 1996
8-23 Proportion of adults who use computers at home and at work, by race/ethnicity: 1993
8-24 Proportion of adults who use computers at home and at work, by level of formal education: 1997
8-25 Proportion of adults who use computers at home and at work, by income level: 1993
8-26 Percentage of U.S. households with a computer, by income level and geographic location: 1994



Top

Indicators Home | Contents | Help | Comments