Appendix A:

Appendix Tables


Chapter 1
Elementary and Secondary Education top

1-1 Proportion of high school graduates earning credits in science courses, by sex: 1982, 1987, 1990, and 1994
1-2 Proportion of high school graduates earning credits in science courses, by race/ethnicity: 1982, 1987, 1990, and 1994
1-3 Trends in average scale scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in science, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1969-96, selected years
1-4 Grade 8 average scale scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in science, by state and race/ethnicity: 1996
1-5 Overall mean and average percentage correct on grade 4 TIMSS science assessment, by country and content area: 1994-95
1-6 Overall mean and average percentage correct on grade 8 TIMSS science assessment, by country and content area: 1994-95
1-7 Average percentage correct on TIMSS science assessment, by country, grade, and sex: 1994-95
1-8 Proportion of high school graduates earning credits in mathematics courses, by sex: 1982, 1987, 1990, and 1994
1-9 Proportion of high school graduates earning credits in mathematics courses, by race/ethnicity: 1982, 1987, 1990, and 1994
1-10 Student achievement levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in mathematics, by grade, sex, race/ethnicity, and region: 1990, 1992, and 1996
1-11 Grade 8 student achievement levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in mathematics, by state and race/ethnicity: 1990, 1992, and 1996
1-12 Overall mean and average percentage correct on grade 4 TIMSS mathematics assessment, by country and content area: 1994-95
1-13 Overall mean and average percentage correct on grade 8 TIMSS mathematics assessment, by country and content area: 1994-95
1-14 Average percentage correct on TIMSS mathematics assessment, by country, grade, and sex: 1994-95
1-15 Students scoring in the top 10th percentile on the TIMSS science and mathematics assessments, by country and grade: 1994-95
1-16 Students who report "never or almost never" using computers in science and mathematics courses, by country and grade: 1994-95
1-17 Average number of hours per day students report spending on out-of-school TV and study time, by country and grade: 1994-95
1-18 Grade 8 teachers' beliefs about the nature and teaching of mathematics and science: 1994-95
1-19 Grade 8 teachers' perceptions of student skills required for success in mathematics and science: 1994-95
1-20 Requirements for state teacher license: 1996
1-21 National trends in science coursetaking at age 17, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1986, 1990, 1992, and 1994
1-22 Highest level of mathematics courses taken at age 17, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1978 and 1994
1-23 Frequency of calculator use in grade 8 mathematics and science classes, by type of activity: 1994-95
1-24 Percentage of public secondary school students taught by teachers without at least a minor in the field, by field and selected classroom characteristics: 1990-91
1-25 Percentage of public schools and instructional rooms with Internet access, by school characteristics: 1994-96
1-26 Proficiency of grade 8 mathematics students, by teachers' backgrounds in mathematics: 1988
1-27 Trends in average scale scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in mathematics, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1973-96, selected years

Chapter 2
Higher Education in Science and Engineering top

2-1 Number of first university degrees and percentage of 24-year-olds who earn first university degrees in S&E, by region/country: Most recent year
2-2 First university degrees in science and engineering awarded in selected Asian countries: 1975-95
2-3 Population of 20- to 24-year-olds in selected countries/regions: 1975-2010
2-4 Percentage of 24-year-olds who earn first university degrees in S&E, by sex and region/country: Most recent year
2-5 Share of first university S&E degrees, by sex and country: Most recent year
2-6 Proportion of first university degrees awarded in S&E, by region/country: Most recent year
2-7 Proportion of first university degrees awarded in S&E, by sex and region/country: Most recent year
2-8 Enrollment in higher education, by Carnegie institution type: 1967-94
2-9 Number of science and engineering degrees, by degree level and institution type: 1995
2-10 Number of institutions awarding science and engineering degrees, by degree level and institution type: 1995
2-11 Total undergraduate enrollment, by race/ethnicity, citizenship, and sex: 1978-95
2-12 Undergraduate enrollment in engineering and engineering technology programs: 1979-96
2-13 Engineering enrollment, by attendance pattern: 1979-96
2-14 Undergraduate enrollment in engineering, by sex, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: 1979-96
2-15 Proportion of freshmen intending to major in science and engineering, by field, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1976-96
2-16 Race/ethnicity of freshmen intending to major in science and engineering, by selected fields: 1976-96
2-17 Freshmen reporting need for remedial work in science or mathematics, by intended major, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
2-18 Earned associate degrees, by field and sex: 1975-95
2-19 Earned associate degrees, by field and race/ethnicity: 1977-95
2-20 Earned bachelor's degrees, by field and sex: 1975-95
2-21 Earned bachelor's degrees, by field, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: 1977-95
2-22 Semesters of postsecondary math courses taken, by type of college and major: 1991-94
2-23 Semesters of postsecondary science courses taken, by type of college and major: 1991-94
2-24 Graduate enrollment in science and engineering, by field and sex: 1975-95
2-25 Graduate enrollment in science and engineering, by field, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: 1983-95
2-26 Doctoral degrees awarded in science and engineering in selected Asian countries: 1975-95
2-27 Earned master's degrees, by field and sex: 1975-95
2-28 Earned master's degrees, by field, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: 1977-95
2-29 Graduate enrollment in engineering, by citizenship: 1985-96
2-30 Earned doctoral degrees, by field and sex: 1975-95
2-31 Earned doctoral degrees, by field, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: 1977-95
2-32 Earned doctoral degrees in science and engineering, by region/country: Most recent year
2-33 Proportion of NS&E doctoral degrees earned by foreign students in selected countries: 1995 or most recent year
2-34 Foreign students enrolled in U.S. universities from 12 major places of origin, by educational level and major field of study: 1995-96
2-35 Earned doctoral degrees, by field and citizenship: 1986-95
2-36 Total S&E doctoral degrees earned by Asian students from Asian and U.S. universities: 1975-95
2-37 Foreign doctoral recipients from U.S. universities who plan to stay in the United States, by field and region/country of origin: 1990-96
2-38 1990-91 Foreign doctoral recipients from U.S. universities working in the United States, by degree field and place of origin: 1992-95
2-39 Postdoctoral appointments in science and engineering, by citizenship status: 1988-95
2-40 Foreign-born S&E faculty in U.S. higher education, by teaching field and region of origin: 1993
2-41 Foreign-born female S&E faculty in U.S. higher education, by teaching field and region of origin: 1993
2-42 Major places of origin for foreign-born S&E faculty in U.S. higher education, by field: 1993
2-43 S&E doctoral degrees earned by Asian students at U.S. universities, by place of origin: 1986-95

Chapter 3
Science and Engineering Workforce top

3-1 Number, education, and employment status, and median income of 1993 and 1994 bachelor's and master's degree recipients, by degree field: 1995
3-2 Employed 1993 and 1994 S&E bachelor's and master's degree recipients, by degree field and sector of employment: 1995
3-3 Employment status of scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and highest degree received: 1995
3-4 Number of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation and highest degree received: 1995
3-5 Number of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation and degree field: 1995
3-6 Employed scientists and engineers, by age group and highest degree received: 1995
3-7 Number of employed scientists and engineers, by sector of employment and broad occupation: 1995
3-8 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation and highest degree received: 1995
3-9 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation and degree field: 1995
3-10 Number of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-11 Percentage distribution of employed scientists and engineers, by highest degree received, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-12 Employed scientists and engineers, by sector of employment, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-13 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by occupation, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-14 Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by sector of employment, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1995
3-15 Scientists and engineers engaged in R&D, and per 10,000 labor force population, by country: 1979-94
3-16 Total science and engineering jobs: 1996 and projected 2006

Chapter 4
U.S. and International Research and Development Funds and Alliances top

4-1 Gross domestic product and GDP implicit price deflators: 1960-99
4-2 Purchasing power parity and market exchange rates, by selected country: 1981-96
4-3 U.S. R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-4 U.S. R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-5 U.S. R&D expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-6 U.S. R&D expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-7 U.S. basic research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-8 U.S. basic research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-9 U.S. basic research expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-10 U.S. basic research expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-11 U.S. applied research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-12 U.S. applied research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-13 U.S. applied research expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-14 U.S. applied research expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-15 U.S. development expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-16 U.S. development expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-17 U.S. development expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Current dollars)
4-18 U.S. development expenditures, by source of funds and performer: 1970-97 (Constant dollars)
4-19 Manufacturing and nonmanufacturing R&D expenditures: 1970-95
4-20 Total expenditures for industrial R&D (financed by company, federal, and other funds), by industry and size of company: 1985-95
4-21 Company and other (except federal) funds for industrial R&D performance, by industry and size of company: 1985-95
4-22 Federal funds for industrial R&D performance, by industry and size of company: 1985-95
4-23 The 100 leading industrial R&D companies, ranked by size of R&D expenditures in 1996
4-24 Concentration of total, federal, company, and other R&D funds and net sales of R&D-performing companies, by size of R&D program: 1985-95
4-25 Company and other (except federal) R&D funds as a percentage of net sales for industrial R&D performance, by industry and size of company: 1985-95
4-26 Trends in R&D and federal outlays: FYs 1980, 1990, and proposed 1998
4-27 Federal obligations for R&D and R&D plant, by agency and character of work: FYs 1987-97
4-28 Department of Defense basic research funding: FYs 1996-2001
4-29 Estimated federal obligations for R&D, by selected agency, performer, and character of work: FY 1997
4-30 Federal obligations for R&D, by character of work and performer: FYs 1987-97
4-31 Federal R&D obligations for federal intramural performance, by selected agency: FYs 1980-97
4-32 Federal R&D laboratory campuses, by agency and state: FY 1995
4-33 Federal R&D obligations to FFRDCs, by administering sector and selected agency: FYs 1987-97
4-34 Federal obligations for R&D to federally funded research and development centers, by individual FFRDC and agency: FY 1995
4-35 Federal obligations for R&D to federally funded research and development centers, by individual FFRDC: FYs 1987-95
4-36 Advanced Technology Program awards: 1990-96
4-37 Small Business Innovation Research awards, by award type and agency: FYs 1983-95
4-38 Budgetary impact and company claims of the federal research and experimentation tax credit: FYs 1981-97
4-39 Federal R&D funding, by budget function: FYs 1980, 1985, and 1990-98
4-40 Federal basic research funding, by budget function: FYs 1980, 1985, and 1990-98
4-41 Distribution of government R&D budget appropriations, by socioeconomic objective: Most recent year
4-42 International R&D expenditures and R&D as a percentage of GDP: 1981-97
4-43 R&D as a percentage of GDP in selected former communist countries: 1990-95
4-44 International nondefense R&D expenditures and R&D as a percentage of GDP: 1981-97
4-45 International R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: Mid-1990s
4-46 R&D expenditures in the United States, by performing sector and domestic and foreign source of funds: 1980, 1987, and 1995
4-47 Discrepancy between federal R&D support as reported by performers and by federal agencies: 1980-96
4-48 Distribution of strategic technology alliances between and within economic blocs, by technology: 1980-96
4-49 Proportion of industrial R&D expenditures financed from foreign sources, by selected country: 1980-96
4-50 Company-financed R&D performed abroad by U.S. companies and their foreign subsidiaries, by industry: 1985-95
4-51 Expenditures for R&D performance for majority-owned foreign affiliates of U.S. parent companies, by region/country: 1982 and 1989-94
4-52 Foreign R&D expenditures in the United States, by industry and region/country: 1980-95
4-53 R&D expenditures in the United States by majority-owned nonbank U.S. affiliates of foreign companies, by industry of affiliate and country of ultimate beneficial owner: 1980 and 1987-95
4-54 Support for R&D and R&D plant from state government sources: 1995
4-55 State R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1995
4-56 Annual aggregate data on independent research and development: FYs 1963-96

Chapter 5
Academic Research and Development:
Financial and Personnel Resources, Integration With Graduate Education, and Outputs up

5-1 Total, federally funded, and nonfederally funded academic R&D, by basic research, applied research, and development: 1960-97
5-2 Support for academic R&D, by sector: FYs 1960-97
5-3 Sources of R&D funds at private and public institutions: 1975, 1985, and 1995
5-4 R&D expenditures at the top 100 academic institutions, by source of funds: 1995
5-5 Total, federal, and nonfederal R&D expenditures at academic institutions, by field and source of funds: 1995
5-6 Expenditures for academic R&D, by field: 1985-95
5-7 Percentage of academic R&D funds federally financed, by field: 1975-95
5-8 Federal obligations for academic R&D, by agency: 1971-97
5-9 Federal obligations for academic research, by agency: 1971-97
5-10 Distribution of federal agency academic research obligations, by field: FY 1995
5-11 Percentage of federal academic research obligations provided by major agencies, by field: FY 1995
5-12 Square footage of total, new construction, and repair/renovation of academic research space, by field: 1986-97
5-13 Cost of academic research new construction and repair/renovation projects, by field: 1986-97
5-14 Funds for new construction and repair/renovation of S&E research space, by type of institution and funding source: 1986-95
5-15 Total stock of S&E research space, by condition and field: 1988-96
5-16 Adequacy of the amount of S&E research space, by field: 1988-96
5-17 Expenditures for deferred S&E research facility construction and repair/renovation needs, by field: 1996
5-18 Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions, by field: 1985-95
5-19 Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions as a percentage of total academic R&D expenditures, by field: 1985-95
5-20 Number and percentage of academic research instruments, by field, price range, and type: 1993
5-21 Aggregate purchase price and percentage distribution of academic research instruments, by field, price range, and type: 1993
5-22 Current age of academic research instruments, by detailed type of instrument: 1993
5-23 Academic employment of doctoral scientists and engineers, by type of position and field: 1973-95
5-24 Academic employment of doctoral scientists and engineers, by degree field, sex, and type of position: 1973-95
5-25 Academic employment of doctoral scientists and engineers, by degree field, race/ethnicity, and type of position: 1973-95
5-26 Age distribution of academic doctoral scientists and engineers, by type of appointment: 1973-95
5-27 Age distribution of full-time doctoral S&E faculty at research universities and other academic institutions: 1973-95
5-28 Employment sector of recent S&E Ph.D.s, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1973-95
5-29 Recent S&E Ph.D.s employed in higher education, by field and type of appointment: 1973-95
5-30 Recent S&E Ph.D.s employed in higher education, by sex, race/ethnicity, and type of appointment: 1973-95
5-31 Academic doctoral scientists and engineers, by self-reported primary work responsibility and type of employing institution: 1973-95
5-32 Academic doctoral scientists and engineers with work responsibility for R&D, by degree field: 1973-95
5-33 Academic doctoral scientists and engineers reporting federal support from one or more agencies, by field: 1973-95
5-34 Full-time S&E graduate students, by source and mechanism of primary support: 1980-95
5-35 Full-time S&E graduate students, by institution type, and source and mechanism of primary support: 1995
5-36 Primary mechanisms of support for 1995 S&E Ph.D. recipients, by degree field
5-37 Full-time S&E graduate students, by field and mechanism of primary support: 1995
5-38 Full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as mechanism of primary support: 1995
5-39 S&E research assistants, by field and primary source of support: 1995
5-40 S&E research assistants whose primary source of support is the Federal Government, by field: 1975-95
5-41 Federal research assistantships, by agency of primary support: 1972-95
5-42 S&E research assistants with primary support from federal agencies, by field: 1995
5-43 S&E research assistants with primary support from the Federal Government, by field and agency of primary support: 1995
5-44 U.S. scientific and technical journal articles, by sector and field: 1981-95
5-45 Broad and fine fields for publications output data
5-46 Coauthorship of U.S. scientific and technical articles across sectors, by article field: 1981-95
5-47 Distribution of citations in U.S. scientific and technical articles to other U.S. scientific and technical articles, by sector and field: 1990 and 1995
5-48 Distribution of citations in U.S. scientific and technical articles across broad and fine fields: 1994-95
5-49 Scientific and technical articles, by country and field: 1981-95, selected years
5-50 Scientific and technical article output of selected countries compared to gross domestic product: 1995
5-51 Distribution of scientific and technical articles for selected countries, by field: 1981-95, selected years
5-52 Coauthored and internationally coauthored scientific and technical articles for selected countries: 1981 and 1995
5-53 Coauthored and internationally coauthored scientific and technical articles for selected countries, by field: 1981-85 and 1991-95
5-54 Patterns of international coauthorship in scientific and technical research: 1981-85 and 1991-95
5-55 Selected countries' citations to the international scientific and technical literature: 1995 articles citing 1991-93 publications
5-56 Citations on U.S. patents to the U.S. scientific and technical literature, by field and cited sector: 1988-96
5-57 U.S. patents awarded to U.S. universities and colleges with largest 1995 R&D volume and to other academic institutions: 1982-95
5-58 Utility classes emphasized in patents assigned to U.S. universities and colleges: 1969-95 total
5-59 Patents awarded to U.S. universities and colleges, by utility class: 1969-74 through 1991-95

Chapter 6
Industry, Technology, and Competitiveness in the Marketplace top

6-1 Real gross domestic product, for selected countries: 1960-95
6-2 Real gross domestic product per capita, for selected countries: 1960-95
6-3 Real gross domestic product per employed person, for selected countries: 1960-95
6-4 High-technology manufacturing in selected industrialized countries, value added and domestic content: 1970-95
6-5 Global industry and trade data, by selected countries and industries: 1980-95
6-6 U.S. trade in advanced technology products: 1990-96
6-7 U.S. receipts and payments of royalties and fees associated with affiliated and unaffiliated foreign residents: 1987-95
6-8 U.S. receipts and payments of royalties and license fees generated from the exchange and use of industrial processes with unaffiliated foreign residents, by region/country: 1987-95
6-9 R&D performance in the United States, by industry: 1973-94
6-10 R&D performance in Japan, by industry: 1973-94
6-11 R&D performance in the European Union, by industry: 1973-94
6-12 Number of U.S. patents granted, by inventor residence, inventor sector, and year of grant: 1963-95
6-13 Patent classes most emphasized by inventors from the United States patenting in the United States: 1985 and 1995
6-14 Patent classes most emphasized by inventors from Japan patenting in the United States: 1985 and 1995
6-15 Patent classes most emphasized by inventors from Germany patenting in the United States: 1985 and 1995
6-16 Patent classes most emphasized by inventors from Taiwan patenting in the United States: 1985 and 1995
6-17 Patent classes most emphasized by inventors from South Korea patenting in the United States: 1985 and 1995
6-18 Patents granted in selected countries, by inventor residence: 1985-95
6-19 Venture capital under management in the United States and disbursements: 1969-95
6-20 Capital commitments by limited partners to institutionally funded independent private venture capital funds: 1978-95
6-21 U.S. venture capital disbursements, by industry category: 1986-95
6-22 U.S. venture capital disbursements, by stage: 1986-95
6-23 Leading indicators of technological competitiveness: 1996

Chapter 7
Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding top

7-1 Indices of issue interest: 1979-97
7-2 Public interest in selected issues: 1979-97
7-3 Mean score on indices of interest in scientific and technological issues, by sex and level of education: 1997
7-4 Indices of issue informedness: 1979-97
7-5 Public informedness on selected issues: 1979-97
7-6 Mean score on indices of informedness on scientific and technological issues, by sex and level of education: 1997
7-7 Public attentiveness to selected issues: 1979-97
7-8 Public attentiveness to scientific and technological issues, by sex and level of education: 1997
7-9 U.S. public understanding of scientific vocabulary and concepts, by selected characteristics: 1997
7-10 Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding, by selected characteristics: 1997
7-11 Public understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry, by selected characteristics: 1997
7-12 Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding in 14 industrialized nations: Most recent year
7-13 General attitudes toward science and technology, by selected characteristics: 1992, 1995, and 1997
7-14 Responses to items in the Index of Scientific Promise and the Index of Scientific Reservations: 1997
7-15 Responses to and mean scores on the Attitude Toward Organized Science Scale, by selected characteristics: 1983-97
7-16 General attitudes toward science and technology in 14 industrialized nations: Most recent year
7-17 Public assessments of funding of scientific research by the Federal Government, by selected characteristics: 1985-97
7-18 Public attitudes toward federal support of basic scientific research, by general attitudes on science and technology and selected characteristics: 1997
7-19 Public confidence in the people running various institutions: 1973-96
7-20 Public assessments of scientific research, by selected characteristics: 1979-97
7-21 Public assessments of nuclear power, by selected characteristics: 1985-97
7-22 Public assessments of genetic engineering, by selected characteristics: 1985-97
7-23 Public assessments of space exploration, by selected characteristics: 1985-97
7-24 Public use of various sources of information, by selected characteristics: 1997
7-25 Public use of information on an annual basis, by selected characteristics: 1997
7-26 Public's access to computers from work and home, by selected characteristics: 1983-97
7-27 Public's access to and use of computers at home and work, by selected characteristics: 1997

Chapter 8
Economic and Social Significance of Information Technologies top

8-1 Use of computers in the workplace: 1993
8-2 Index of real net information technologies capital stock in the private sector: 1960-95
8-3 Gross product by industry as a share of gross domestic product: 1959-94, selected years
8-4 U.S. employment by industrial sector: 1950-90, selected years
8-5 Workers who use a computer at work, by sector: 1993
8-6 Index of information technologies investments, by industry: 1991-92
8-7 Technology in public schools: 1992-95
8-8 Student use of computers at home and at school, by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income: 1984 and 1993
8-9 Adult use of computers at home, school, and work: 1993
8-10 Commercial banks output per employee: 1967-95


Previous Section Top of Section Next Section