Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities: Summary Report 1998

Appendix A: The Seven Basic Tables, 1998


Appendix A includes the following seven tables:

A-1 Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Sex and Subfield, 1998
A-2 Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Citizenship, Race/Ethnicity, and Subfield, 1998
A-3 Statistical Profile of Doctorate Recipients, by Major Field, 1998
A-4 Statistical Profile of Doctorate Recipients, by Race/Ethnicity and Citizenship, 1998
A-5 Sources of Graduate School Support for Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field and Sex, 1998
A-6 State of Doctoral Institution of Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field and Sex, 1998
A-7 Institutions Granting Doctorates, by Major Field, 1998

Table A-1 and Table A-2 top

Tables A-1 and A-2 display data for the most recent year by subfield of doctorate. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED). The "general" field categories—e.g., "chemistry, general"—include individuals who either received the doctorate in the general subject area or did not indicate a particular specialty field. The "other" field categories—e.g., "chemistry, other"—include individuals whose specified doctoral discipline was not among the specialty fields listed.

Table A-1 presents data by doctoral specialty and sex. Table A-2 displays doctoral specialty by citizenship and race/ethnicity. For a detailed description of the racial/ethnic variable, see the explanatory note for Table A-4.

Table A-3 top

Table A-3 is composed of three 2-page tables. The first table (A-3a) includes data on all research doctorate recipients from the most recent year; the other two tables (A-3b and A-3c) present the same data by sex. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the SED. Terms requiring definition are as follows:

Percentage with Master's: The percentage of doctorate recipients in a field who received a master s degree in any field before earning the doctorate.

Median Age at Doctorate: One-half received the doctorate at or before this age. A recipient's age is obtained by subtracting the month/year of birth from the month/year of doctorate. (See note on next page.)

Median Time Lapse: "Total Time" refers to the total calendar time elapsed between the month/year of baccalaureate and the month/year of doctorate. "Registered Time" refers to the actual time in attendance at colleges and universities between receipt of the baccalaureate and the doctorate.

NOTE about medians: The method of computing medians has been revised. Beginning with Summary Report 1994, months (of birth, baccalaureate, and doctorate) are included in the calculations; medians presented in earlier reports were based only on years. Some medians would be the same regardless of the method of computation, but the new method generally computes slightly different results than are obtained by the old method. While variation is small (usually one or two decimal places), the reader should consider these differences when comparing medians presented in this report with those in earlier reports.

Postgraduation Plans: Each year's doctorate recipients provide information on post-graduation employment or study plans in response to items B1 through B9 on the survey form. Since the questionnaire is filled out around the time the doctorate is awarded, a recipients plans are subject to change. However, comparisons with the longitudinal Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) have shown SED data to be a reasonable indicator of actual employment status in the year following the doctorate, although results vary by sector. (The SDR is a follow-up employment survey of a sample of doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and, until 1995, humanities fields.)

In Table A-3 the postgraduation plans of doctorate recipients are grouped as follows: "Postdoctoral Study Plans" (fellowship, research associateship, traineeship, other), "Planned Employment after Doctorate" (educational institution, industry, etc.), and "Postdoctoral Plans Unknown." These categories include recipients who were still negotiating or seeking positions at the time of survey completion, as well as those whose plans were definite. The sum of these lines equals 100 percent for each column, with allowance for rounding: for example, 28.0 percent of all psychology doctorate recipients had postdoctoral study plans, 54.2 percent planned to be employed, and 17.8 percent did not report their post-graduation plans, totaling 100 percent. The study rows is further subdivided by type of study or appointment (fellowships, research associateships, traineeships, and other study). The percentages in these subdivisions sum to the percent of respondents in the given column who reported plans for postdoctoral study. The employment row is similarly subdivided by type of employer. The percentages for these rows add to percentage of respondents in the given column who planned employment. The category for educational institutions includes elementary and secondary schools as well as colleges and universities, and the category for government includes military service.

The four lines of data beginning with "Definite Postdoctoral Study" distinguish between individuals who had definite postgraduation plans at the time of survey completion (item B1: "Am returning to, or continuing in, predoctoral employment" or "Have signed contract or made definite commitment") and those who were still seeking employment or postdoctoral study (item B1: "Am negotiating with one or more specific organizations," "Am seeking position but have no specific prospects," or "Other"). These four lines, when added to the prior line, "Postdoctoral Plans Unknown," total 100 percent with allowance for rounding. The two lines "Definite Postdoctoral Study" and "Seeking Postdoctoral Study" add to give the percentage for "Postdoctoral Study Plans"; the two lines "Definite Employment" and "Seeking Employment" add to give the percentage for "Planned Employment After Doctorate."

Percentages showing the distribution of doctorate recipients by postdoctoral work activity and region of employment are based only on the number of recipients who had definite employment commitments at the time they completed the questionnaire. These percentages exclude recipients who planned postdoctoral study (as described above) and recipients who were still seeking employment at the time they completed the questionnaire. (Note that the rows on specific postdoctoral study and employment plans discussed earlier include individuals whose plans were not definite.) Revisions to the questionnaire format beginning in 1990 resulted in higher rates of nonresponse to the item on work activity through 1993, when the rate was 15.1 percent. The questionnaire was revised again in 1994, and nonresponse subsequently dropped to 11.9 percent in 1994 and 10.7 in 1995. A final revision in 1995 dropped the nonresponse for this item to just 3.4 percent in 1997.

The U.S. regions of employment shown in Table A-3 include the following states and territories:

New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin
West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota
South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee
West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas
Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming
Pacific & Insular: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory, Virgin Islands

Table A-4 top

Table A-4 contains data by race/ethnicity and citizenship for selected variables included in Tables A-3 and A-5. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the SED.

The racial/ethnic question has undergone several revisions over the years. In 1977 it was modified to correspond to a standard question format recommended by the Federal Interagency Committee on Education and adopted by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for use in Federally sponsored surveys; an explanation of the effect of these changes is detailed on page 13 of Summary Report 1977. (Note: Changes in the OMB guidelines prompted the moving of persons having origins in the Indian subcontinent from the white category to the Asian category.) In 1980 the item was further revised in two ways: (1) the Hispanic category was subdivided into Puerto Rican, Mexican American, and other Hispanic to provide more detail for users of the racial/ethnic data, and (2) respondents were asked to check only one racial category. (Before 1980 doctorate recipients could check more than one category to indicate their race.)

The item was modified again in 1982 to separate the questions on race and ethnicity. Since then respondents have been asked to first check one of the four racial group categories (American Indian, Asian, black, or white) and then indicate whether or not they are Hispanic. In Table A-4, doctorate recipients who reported Hispanic heritage, regardless of racial designation, are included in one of three Hispanic groups: Puerto Rican, Mexican American, or other Hispanic. The remaining survey respondents are then counted in the respective racial groups. (Note: doctorate recipients who checked the category "American Indian or Alaskan Native" are identified as American Indian in this report.)

NOTE about median age and time lapse (to doctorate): The method of computing medians has been revised. Beginning with Summary Report 1994, months (of birth, baccalaureate, and doctorate) are included in the calculations; medians presented in earlier reports were based only on years. Some medians would be the same regardless of the method of computation, but the new method generally computes slightly different results. While variation is small (usually one or two decimal places), the reader should consider these differences when comparing medians presented in this report with those in earlier reports. See explanatory information on Table A-3 for further description.

In the section of "Doctoral Program Support" a recipient counts in more than one category if support was received from multiple sources. Because a student counts more than once for sources of support, the vertical percentages sum to more than 100 percent. See the explanatory note on Appendix Table A-5 for further detail. (Data on the primary source of support for doctorate recipients are presented in the body of the report.)

The other sections in Table A-4 correspond to many of those in Appendix Table A-3. The reader is referred to the explanatory note on Table A-3 for additional information.

Table A-5 top

Table A-5 displays data reported in item A11 on financial resources used in support of the respondent's doctoral program, by broad field and sex of recipient. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the SED.

A recipient counts in more than one category in Table A-5 if more than one financial resource was reported. Because a student counts once for each of his/her financial resources, the vertical percentages sum to more than 100 percent. (Data on the primary financial resources for doctorate recipients are presented in the body of the report.) Please consult Appendix C: Technical Notes for additional information on changes in the coding of Sources of Support/Financial Resources.

Table A-6 top

Table A-6 shows, by broad field and sex, the number of persons receiving a doctorate in the most recent year from institutions in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the SED. See appendix E for a description of field groupings as reported in this table; see the questionnaire's Specialties List in appendix D for the names and codes of the subfields included.

Table A-7 top

Table A-7 displays data by doctorate-granting institution and major field. It includes all institutions in the United States (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico) that awarded doctoral degrees in the most recent year. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by Federal sponsors of the SED and from departmental designations at institutions.


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