General Notes

The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) periodically releases updates to its Science and Engineering State Profiles. This release contains the latest data available. Science and Engineering State Profiles is now a data tool that allows users to generate science and engineering (S&E) profiles that summarize state-specific data on personnel and finances. The State Profiles data tool can display a single state's profile or a profile containing up to 10 states.

Rankings and totals are for the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Rankings are based on unrounded totals. For the Puerto Rico profile, the data sources for some variables differ from those used to obtain state data. Comparable data do not exist on total and industry R&D performance for Puerto Rico.

The precision of the sample estimates of doctoral scientists and engineers varies by state. One useful measure of the relative precision of a given estimate is the coefficient of variation (C.V.), which is defined as the standard error of the estimate divided by the estimate. An estimate with a C.V. of less than 10% is considered sufficiently reliable to use for most purposes. An estimate with a C.V. of more than 10% is less precise, and use of its data requires more care; for example, when making comparisons across states.

The following data are from NCSES surveys: employed SEH doctorate holders; S&E doctorates awarded, including by major S&E fields; SEH graduate students and postdoctorates; federal R&D obligations by agency and performer; total and industrial R&D expenditures; and academic R&D expenditures, including by major S&E fields. Data from non-NCSES sources include population, civilian labor force, per capita personal income, federal expenditures, patents, small business innovation research awards, and gross domestic product.

The U.S. total in a State Profile and its corresponding data source may not match in all cases. Differences are due to rounding, survey scope, or undistributed data. For example, source data may or may not include Puerto Rico. See Technical Notes associated with each survey.