EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††$711,000,000



The FY 2000 Budget Request for the Education and Human Resources (EHR) Activity is $711.0 million, an increase of $22.0 million, or 3.2 percent, over the FY 1999 Current Plan of $689.0 million.Within the FY 2000 Request, $678.0 million are included within the EHR Appropriation, and $33.0 million are H-1B Nonimmigrant Petitioner Fees.


(Millions of Dollars)

Numbers may not add due to rounding.†††


The EHR Activity defines and implements an investment strategy that advances the vision and goals of NSFís Strategic Plan for education and human resource development. Its interconnected and comprehensive portfolio of programs - unique within the federal enterprise -encompasses every educational level and type of learning, including formal and informal, in all parts of the country.Its programs develop models and strategies for providing all students access to high quality, standards-based educational opportunities and play a major role in helping meet NSF's commitment to developing human resources for the U.S. scientific and technological workforce.EHRís component programs are subject to continuous improvements based on program reviews, evaluation, dissemination of best practices, and evolving knowledge bases.


The strength of EHR science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) programming resides in its ability to integrate research and education, marshaling the combined expertise of the research and education communities.Its products include cutting-edge research on teaching and learning that informs education practice; comprehensive, standards-based instructional materials effective in increasing student achievement and providing essential workplace skills; strategies for developing content knowledge and teaching skills of the instructional workforce; and research, development and implementation of next generation learning technologies.


Systemic reform of science and mathematics education, a strategy replicated by other federal and educational organizations, is the cornerstone of EHR PreK-12 programming.Based on the belief that all students can learn and achieve at much higher levels than are presently attained in science and mathematics, systemic projects treat whole systems and build educational capacity at state, urban, rural, and district levels.Over the years, NSF and participating sites have identified elements critical to successful reform, such as aligning of governance, practice, and resources; adopting strategies informed by local needs; simultaneously implementing standards-based curriculum, instruction, and assessment; and building meaningful partnerships that bring needed intellectual and financial resources to school systems.


Systemic efforts increase the breadth and depth of EHR's impact on science and mathematics education in the U.S.EHRís systemic programs include:††††

††††† Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSI): Initiated in FY 1991, SSI developed alternative models to strengthen state infrastructures for reform; over time, it has translated that reform down to classroom levels.Phase II projects now provide seven states and Puerto Rico the opportunity to carry their exemplary efforts to new levels.A network of SSI sites encourages continued collaboration and the exchange of best practices for sustaining reform efforts.

††††† Urban Systemic Program (USP): The Urban Systemic Initiatives (USI) program, with first efforts initiated in FY 1993,attempts to catalyze changes in policy and resource utilization in 28 of the largest U.S. school systems. Operating in large school systems that are characterized by high concentrations of students in poverty and racial/ethnic minorities, USI projects were designed to reduce inequities and to raise unacceptably low levels of student performance.In FY 1995, the Comprehensive Partnerships for Mathematics and Science Achievement (CPMSA) program made USI-type activities available to smaller cities.In FY 1999, the two programs merged into a new effort, USP, expanding eligibility and offering opportunities to link K-12 reform with technical workforce development, teacher preparation efforts, and academic enrichment for students.†††

††††† Rural Systemic Initiatives (RSI): Initiated in FY 1994, RSI addresses the unique needs of isolated regions with high rates of poverty (e.g., Alaska, Tribal Sites, Appalachia).RSI is pioneering efforts to coordinate education reform across state lines and to apply innovative distance learning that brings quality instruction to students in these communities.†† Beginning in FY 1999, an enhanced rural strategy promotes implementation of standards-based reform in smaller clusters of rural school districts nationwide.††

††††† Local Systemic Change (LSC): Initiated in FY 1994, LSC implements classroom-level reform through professional development of teachers in entire school districts.Operational in urban, suburban, and rural settings, LSC implements standards-based curricula and creates supportive environments that engage administrators and parents.

To maintain U.S. research superiority and a workforce capable of meeting technological demands of the future, undergraduate and graduate education must also undergo reform.Undergraduate institutions build the workforce capable of delivering K-12 standards-based education; provide a well-trained science and technology workforce; and develop a scientifically literate citizenry.Undergraduate programming focuses on institution-wide implementation of high quality instructional materials and educational practices in classrooms and laboratories.It emphasizes innovations that apply state-of-the-art research on learning, instruction, and educational technologies; provides access to cutting-edge science; and responds to the varying cultural, academic backgrounds, and learning styles of students.At the graduate level, the NSF-wide Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program provides doctoral students with the interdisciplinary research experiences, content knowledge, and professional skills to meet the challenges of scientific careers.The NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education program, initiated in FY 1999, continues to encourage graduate and advanced undergraduate SMET majors to serve as content resources for K-12 teachers.


EHR programs promote NSF goals by supporting:

††††† PreK-16 systemic reform to achieve standards-based, inquiry-centered science and mathematics education;

††††† development of resources (e.g., curricula, student assessments, professional development strategies) that support standards-based education;

††††† advanced training of scientists, mathematicians, and engineers for the 21st century;

††††† increased scientific and technological literacy; and

††††† integration of research and education.

In FY 2000, EHR will address emerging needs and opportunities in five priority areas.The intent is to capitalize on synergy across programs with related goals; challenge the field to develop innovative strategies to serve as models for the nation; and aggressively pursue opportunities for collaboration with other NSF programs, as well as federal and private organizations.


††††† Education Research: NSF's education research agenda is unique within the federal enterprise.It provides the knowledge base that undergirds improvements in mathematics and science instruction, more efficient use of educational technologies, and development of a more effective mathematics and science instructional workforce.A comprehensive agenda will be pursued, spanning applications of basic research on neural and cognitive sciences, teaching and learning, systemic reform, and policy.†† Emphasis is placed on development and applications of educational technologies, piloting of technologies to assess their effectiveness in classrooms, and large-scale implementation across entire education systems. Special studies and indicator development continues to define the context and monitor the state of the education enterprise.††††


††††† Building the K-12 Instructional Workforce: Pre- and in-service education programs will work in concert to implement a strategy that addresses the two-fold national need of producing a K-12 instructional workforce of adequate size and quality to deliver standards-based science and mathematics education.The strategy focuses on innovative models of teacher preparation, early career induction and retention, development of a sustainable national infrastructure to meet continuing teacher education needs, and research for identifying effective strategies.†† Systemic projects, whose progress is rate-limited by instructional workforces, will be actively engaged in development and implementation of these strategies.††

††††† Systemic Reform: Systemic reform is increasingly recognized as a necessary strategy to provide sustainable improvements in the nation's educational enterprise.Eligibility is broadened to smaller urban and rural areas, in order to enable districts to accelerate the rate of change and increase system-wide improvements in K-12 science, mathematics and technology (SMT) learning.Increased emphasis is placed on forging partnerships between districts and institutions of higher education.The new Urban Systemic Program includes innovative options for K-12 districts to develop exemplary improvements in technical education with two-year colleges, improve existing teacher preparation rograms and develop research opportunities for K-12 students at four-year colleges and universities. Program and site-specific research is encouraged across projects to increase understanding of the reform process.†††††

††††† Diversity Continuum: In Losing Ground: Science and Engineering Graduate Education of Black and Hispanic Americans (1998), the American Association for the Advancement of Science reported that continued decline in minority graduate science, mathematics and engineering (SME) enrollment could have a major impact on workforce diversity in the 21st century.In FY 1999, EHR is developing a highly synergistic and value-added continuum that integrates the operation of four programs--Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation, the HBCU-Undergraduate Program, the Minority Graduate Education program, and Centers for Research Excellence in Science and Technology.Special emphasis is directed on increasing diversity of the professoriate.

††††† Educational Technologies: Educational technologies show great, but as yet unrealized, promise for increasing access to quality education and meeting the diverse needs of alternative learning styles.All SMET education programs encourage the application and effective implementation of learning techniques; development of appropriate tools and content; and effective implementation of technology in classrooms, schools, and education systems nationwide.Major emphases include development of a national digital library for K-16 education, and dissemination and application of knowledge gained through research efforts.




(Millions of Dollars)


1††††††††† Includes only costs charged to the EHR Appropriation.

2 Includes $3.0 million in Administration & Management contract services in both FY 1999 and FY 2000.




PreK-12 Activities


The FY 2000 Budget Request includes $357.96 million for PreK-12 activities, an increase of $19.80 million.PreK-12 programs are operated within the Educational System Reform; Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education; and the Undergraduate Education Subactivities.Evaluation and monitoring systems within the Research, Evaluation, and Communication (REC) Subactivity assess program impact and operational effectiveness.The majority of the increment will be invested in two new activities:

††††† National Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education Digital Library (NSDL) funding of $13.0 million, includes $10.0 million to support PreK-12 activities and $3.0 million to support undergraduate-related activities. Development of the NSDL, a national resource to increase the quality, quantity, and comprehensiveness of internet-based K-16 SMET educational resources, will be accelerated.As a virtual facility, NSDL links students, teachers, and faculty and provides broad access to standards-based educational materials and learning tools for K-16 schools and academic institutions nationwide.In addition to platform development, new efforts focus on developing mechanisms to aid users in finding appropriate, high quality resources; identifying and testing procedures and tools for assessing and evaluating educational materials and services; and developing registries and repositories of high quality educational products and services

††††† NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education initiated in FY 1999, will provide $7.50 million to continue support of graduate and advanced undergraduate SMET majors as content resources for K-12 teachers.These Fellows will assist teachers in the science and mathematics content to be used in instruction, demonstrate key science and mathematics concepts, and connect elementary and secondary learning to the habits and skills required for collegiate study.This activity brings the acknowledged excellence of U.S. graduate education to the service of K-12 teaching and learning.

Additional support for PreK-12 activities are funded through EHRís systemic reform activities:


Systemic Reform of PreK-12:†† In FY 2000, funding of large-scale systemic reform for states, cities, and rural areas totals $114.20 million, a decrease of $2.25 million.The consolidation of programs will enable focused efforts on implementation of reform in smaller educational systems, and program innovations to strengthen the interface between the K-12 and higher education sectors.

††††† Urban Systemic Program (USP) funding decreases $1.45 million, to total $87.20 million.In FY 2000, up to 15 new awards are anticipated.In 1998, over 90,000 teachers in 19 cities participated in professional development, and 3.4 million students benefited directly from the program.An additional, 1 million students were enrolled in the 1,536 schools at 27 CPMSA sites.

††††† Statewide Systemic Initiative (SSI) program funding decreases by $3.30 million, to total $14.0 million.Exemplary reform efforts continue in eight states and a network is formed that fosters communication across all 25 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico which have received awards.In 1998, over 78,000 teachers in 10 states participated in SSI-sponsored professional development and 7.5 million students benefited directly from the program.

††††† Rural Systemic Initiatives (RSI) program funding increases $2.50 million, to total $13.0 million.In FY 2000, RSI continues support for seven multi-state implementation sites; additional district-based awards focused on implementation are anticipated.Continued focus will be placed on implementing distance learning through satellite, fiber optics, and microwave technology.In FY 1998, over 3,600 teachers in five projects participated in RSI-sponsored professional development and over 211,000 students benefited directly from the program.


Other Activities

††††† Local Systemic Change (LSC) funding increases to almost $45.0 million.With strategies designed to meet local needs, LSC successfully engages school districts in implementing standards-based curricula through professional development strategies that encompass entire instructional workforces.Alternative approaches to reform creatively involve universities, informal science performers, and industry.The 60 LSC projects operating in FY 1998 have provided intensive professional development to nearly 58,000 teachers in rural, urban, and suburban districts nationwide, improving classroom instruction for nearly 2 million students.

††††† Collaboratives for Excellence in Teacher Preparation (CETP) funding decreases by $1.95 million, to total $25.83 million.CETP reforms PreK-12 teacher preparation through meaningful collaborations between SMET disciplinary and education departments at universities and colleges.The 106 four-year institutions involved in CETP produce over 12 percent of the nation's bachelor's degrees in education.Most Collaboratives interact with state, urban and/or rural systemic initiatives; many involve state policy bodies in some formal capacity.Collaboratives in Virginia, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and New Mexico worked with states to set education policies governing science and mathematics teacher preparation.As of 1998, 73 percent of Collaborative graduates were teaching, exceeding the national average of 67 percent (National Commission on Education Statistics). Nearly 87 percent of graduates remain in the geographic area served by the Collaboratives.

††††† Instructional Materials Development (IMD) funding declines $1.90 million, to total $34.90 million.IMD projects develop rigorous, validated standards-based comprehensive curricula and instructional materials for K-12 science and mathematics education.Special emphasis is placed on resource centers that foster awareness and implementation of standards-based curriculum models, as well as development of much needed standards-based science performance assessments.

††††† Advanced Technological Education (ATE) funding remains constant at $8.30 million.ATE's goal is to strengthen the science and mathematics preparation of technicians for the high-performance workplace.The primary goal of the program at this education level is to strengthen curriculum and the instructional workforce for technology programs in secondary schools and to facilitate transition to two- and four-year technology programs.When combined with undergraduate activities, ATE funding totals $31.15 million.

††††† Teacher Enhancement (TE) [excluding LSC projects] funding increases by $2.10 million, to a level of nearly $60 million.TE efforts expand the nationís ability to strengthen its K-12 instructional workforce, creating materials for training teachers and providing leadership training for in-service teachers and school administrators.A special component of the program provides state-of-the-art research experiences to students and teachers through active engagement of practicing scientists and engineers, with an emphasis placed on translating these experiences back to middle- and secondary school classrooms.

††††† Informal Science Education (ISE) funding remains unchanged at $46.0 million, investing in activities across a variety of media including museums, print, broadcast, and community-based organizations that increase appreciation and understanding of science and technology.Over $39.0 million in support focuses on PreK-12 education.In FY 2000, ISE increases access to informal learning opportunities in inner cities and rural areas; strengthens linkages between informal and formal learning experiences; and works to disseminate the latest scientific findings.


Undergraduate Activities


The FY 2000 Budget Request for undergraduate support of $115.01 million, a decrease of $200,000. Support is primarily in the Undergraduate Education, Human Resource Development, and Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivities.†† Major undergraduate programs include:

††††† Advanced Technological Education (ATE) funding remains constant at $22.85 million.ATE's goal is to strengthen the science and mathematics preparation of technicians for the high-performance workplace.ATE maintains support for 11 existing Centers and nearly 160 smaller-scale projects.Emphasis is placed on adaptation and implementation of exemplary curricula or programs.Currently, ATE involves over 1,000 faculty and 300 teachers in developmental activities.Over 1,000 large, medium, and small companies are actively involved in the first six Centers, contributing substantial funds, personnel release time, and expertise.When combined with secondary-school activities, ATE funding totals $31.15 million.

††††† Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) funding decreases $3.0 million, to total $47.42 million.CCLI focuses on institution-wide implementation of quality instruction in classrooms and laboratories.†† In FY 1998, over 120 new awards were made across all NSF-supported disciplines,nearly 25 percent were interdisciplinary in nature; 18 percent focused on needs of women; and 22 percent focused on the needs of minority students.†††

††††† Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) funding remains at $26.55 million, supporting a combination of new and existing projects.LSAMP strategies raise the achievement and number of underrepresented minority degree recipients in undergraduate science, mathematics, and engineering (SME).Projects utilize the knowledge, resources and capabilities of academic, federal, industrial, and private sectors.LSAMP supports 27 alliances of two- and four-year colleges and universities.In 1998, LSAMP projects graduated more than 18,000 students with SME baccalaureate degrees and leveraged more than 100 percent of NSF's investment.

††††† Minority Institution funding remains unchanged at $8.50 million.Historically Black Colleges and Universities-Undergraduate Program (HBCU-UP) funding remains constant at $6.0 million. HBCU-UP is designed to strengthen research infrastructure and education in participating institutions and contributes to the goal of increasing numbers of minorities obtaining SMET baccalaureate degrees.The Model Institutions of Excellence program, a Foundation-wide effort, is funded at $2.50 million.

††††† National SMETE Digital Library (NSDL) funding totals $13.0 million, with $3.0 million in undergraduate support contributing to development of the platform, protocols, and resource content for that virtual facility that will service K-16 education. An additional $10.0 million is invested at thepreK-12 educational level.

Graduate Activities


The FY 2000 Budget Request provides support for graduate activities totaling $81.93 million, a decrease of $4.0 million. Support is primarily located within the Graduate Education, Human Resource Development, and Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivities.Programs include:

††††† Graduate Research Fellowship (GRF) funding decreases by $500,000, to total $51.75 million.The number of new offers to Fellows will be maintained at approximately 900 with the total number of active Fellows nearing 2,400.Fellowships recognize and support the nationís most promising science, mathematics, and engineering graduate students.In FY 1999, the GRF and Minority Graduate Research Fellowship programs were merged into one program.Priority is placed on maintaining diversity of the applicant and award candidate pools.

††††† Graduate Research Traineeship funding decreases $3.50 million to total $15.0 million.†† Within this total, EHR increases support for the NSF-wide Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program by $500,000, to total $14.35 million, which provides support for universities to engage graduate students in interdisciplinary science and engineering research training programs.Graduate Research Traineeships (GRT) program funding is reduced to $650,000 as the last projects terminate.

††††† Minority Graduate Education (MGE) funding remains unchanged at $12.50 million.This effort, initiated at the request of Congress in FY 1998, continues to refine and implement innovative strategies for increasing substantially the number of minority SME doctorates and their representation in the professoriate.††

††††† Postdoctoral Fellowships in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education (PFSMETE) remains unchanged at $2.90 million, supporting nearly 60 Fellows.PFSMETE is designed to accelerate infrastructure development for K-16 education reform by providing recent SMET doctorates with the skills to assume educational leadership roles.


Public Understanding of Science


The FY 2000 Budget Request of $6.90 million remains unchanged.In FY 2000, the Informal Science Education (ISE) program under the Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education Subactivity continues its efforts to disseminate the latest findings from NSF-supported research.





The FY 2000 Budget Request for Research remains unchanged at $108.10 million.Supported activities include:

††††† Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) funding remains constant at $48.41 million as the program carries out its efforts to strengthen the research infrastructure of participating states.In addition, approximately $15.0 million will be provided through NSFís research programs to enable EPSCoR researchers to participate more fully in NSF research activities.

††††† Education Research funding remains constant at $49.20 million.In FY 2000, EHR continues to support a comprehensive and integrated agenda covering the spectrum from the application of basic cognitive research to large-scale efforts implementing educational technologies.Programs include: the Education Research Initiative (ERI), a NSF-wide activity ($15.0 million); Learning and Intelligent Systems (LIS) ($4.29 million); and other efforts supporting the full array of EHR's program agenda.

††††† Centers of Research Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST) remains unchanged at $8.81 million with up to 10 sites supported.

††††† Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education (POWRE) funding remains unchanged at the FY 1999 Current Plan level of $3.0 million.POWRE is a NSF-wide effort to promote early career development for women in science, mathematics, and engineering.




In FY 2000, EHR will provide support for research and education efforts related to three broad Foundation-wide efforts:Biocomplexity in the Environment, Information Technologies, and Educating for the Future.


Educating for the Future (EFF): A number of programs within EHR also contribute to the Foundation-wide efforts in EFF. A total of $220.68 million, including an increment of $19.75 million, support these efforts including: $13.0 million for the continued development of the National SMETE Digital Library to support K-16 education,systemic reform, Education Research Initiative (ERI), K-8 Mathematics reform,Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeships (IGERT), NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education, PFSMETE and Minority Institutions of Excellence.


Information Technologies (IT):In FY 2000, EHR will provide approximately $6.8 million to support activities related to information technologies.

Biocomplexity in the Environment (BE):EHR support for the Foundation-wide efforts in BE will total $1.19 million in FY 2000 and will include support for the development of a comprehensive middle-school earth sciences curriculum program.


Program Evaluation and Accountability: In FY 2000, evaluation funding under the Research, Evaluation, and Communication (REC) Subactivity remains unchanged at $12.54 million.Growing emphasis continues on building robust data systems fully responding to Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) reporting requirements. Full-scale evaluations activities of selected major on-going programs and specialized implementation studies will continue to identify best practices.To ensure accountability and strengthening of programs, EHR continues two activities initiated in 1997:(1) Program effectiveness reviews of large-scale projects and program portfolios to standardize assessment of their performance and document accountability and (2) development of student performance assessments to measure achievement gains under new, inquiry-based curricula.


Scientific and Technological Literacy: NSF's Strategic Plan focuses agency efforts on promoting scientific and technological literacy, enabling citizens to make informed decisions on matters that affect their lives and the nationís productivity.EHR efforts broadly serve to attract children and young adults into scientific careers and enhance life-long learning opportunities for those entering non-science professions.While formal K-16 education activities support this objective, other targeted activities include: informal science - outside-the-classroom - education for children and their families; efforts focused on women and girls and persons with disabilities; and dissemination activities that enable all Americans to appreciate the scientific discovery and education process.


Administration and Management


The Administration and Management key program function includes the cost of Intergovernmental Personnel Act appointments, contractors performing administrative functions and, in FY 2000, award- related travel.


Number of People Involved in EHR Activities