United States Academic Research Fleet
As required and available, research ships of the U.S. academic fleet operated by University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System work in ice-free Antarctic waters. These visitors have included Melville and Knorr. Research projects generally are in the disciplines of physical oceanography, marine biology, and marine geology and geophysics. In addition, the deep sea drilling ships Glomar Challenger and Joides Resolution have taken research cores from beneath Antarctic waters.