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Charon: An Ice Machine in the Ultimate Deep Freeze

July 17, 2007

artist's conception of Charon A recent discovery by astronomers suggests Pluto's companion planet Charon, is the equivalent of an outer solar system ice machine. Evidence shows frigid geysers shoot up through cracks in Charon's crust and re-coat parts of its surface in ice crystals. Full Story

Gemini Observatory

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2016, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 12,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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