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News From the Field

How to Rip and Tear a Fluid


June 1, 2007

Illustration of diamond cutting through swirls In a simple experiment on a mixture of water, soap and a salt, researchers have shown that a rigid object like a knife will pass through the mixture as if it were a liquid when speeds are slow, but when careening through at speed, the knife rips the mixture as if it were a rubbery solid. The experiment sheds light into the properties of many everyday materials, like toothpaste, that do not fall into the standard textbook case of solid, liquid or gas. Full Story

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Penn State

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2016, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 12,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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