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News From the Field
Volcanoes Deliver Two Flavors of Water

February 27, 2012

volcano illustration By analyzing submarine volcanic glass from the Manus Basin, scientists found unexpected changes in hydrogen and boron isotopes from the deep mantle. They expected to see the "fingerprint" of seawater but instead, discovered evidence of seawater distilled from a more ancient plate descent, preserved for as long as 1 billion years. The data indicates that these ancient slabs can return to the upper mantle, and that rates of hydrogen exchange may not conform to experiments. Full Story

Carnegie Institution

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, its budget is $7.3 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 48,000 competitive proposals for funding, and makes about 11,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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