Science and Engineering Infrastructure for the 21st Century


for this reportcommitteensb board membersacknowledment
Last Updated: 09/15/2015

1 Nobel e-Museum (

2 The NSB will periodically assess the implementation of these recommendations.

3 The order of presentation does not imply a priority ranking.

4 As used in this report, research infrastructure does not include the S&E workforce of researchers, educators and other professionals, i.e. what is commonly referred to as the "human infrastructure."

5 Revolutionizing Science and Engineering through Cyberinfrastructure, Report of the NSF Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Dan Atkins (Chair), February 2003

6 Nobel e-Museum (

7 The complete charge to the INF is included in Appendix A

8 This literature list appears in Appendix B

9 The seven directorates are: Biological Sciences (BIO); Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE); Education and Human Resources (EHR); Engineering (ENG); Geosciences (GEO); Mathematical and Physical Sciences (MPS); and Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences (SBE)

10 See Appendix C for Sources of Public Comment.

11 This history is based heavily on two sources: (1) David C. Mowery and Nathan Rosenberg, "U.S. National Innovation System" in National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, ed. Richard R. Nelson, Oxford University Press, 1993; and (2) Vannevar Bush, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Science - The Endless Frontier, A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research, July 1945 (NSF 90-8).

12 Research equipment received either as part of research grants or as separate equipment grants.

13 NSF, Academic Science and Engineering R&D Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1999, Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 01-329; and NSF, unpublished tabulations.

14 NSF Enterprise Information System.

15 National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, NSB 02-1, January 2002.

16 NSF/SRS, Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities, 2001, unpublished survey data.

17 The number of doctoral-level academic researchers increased from 82,300 in 1973 to 150,100 in 1993, and to 168,100 in 1999. S&E Indicators 2002, 5-23.

18 Charles A. Goldman and T. Williams, Paying for University Research Facilities and Administration, RAND, (MR-1135-1-OSTP), Washington, D.C., 2000

19 National Science and Technology Council, Final Report on Academic Research Infrastructure: A Federal Plan for Renewal, Washington D.C., March 17, 1995.

20 NSF Division of Science Resources Statistics, Science and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998, NSF-01-301, October 2000.

21 NIH Working Group on Construction of Research Facilities, A Report to the Advisory Committee of the Director, National Institutes of Health, July 6, 2001.

22 Dan Goldin, Aerospace Daily, October 17, 2001.

23U.S. Department of Energy, Infrastructure Frontier: A Quick Look Survey of the Office of Science Laboratory Infrastructure, April 2001.

24 Unpublished internal survey of NSF directorates.

25 NSB-00-206- November 2000, Report of the NSF Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Dan Atkins (Chair), Revolutionizing Science and Engineering through Cyberinfrastructure, National Science Foundation, February, 2003.

26 NSB, Toward a More Effective U.S. Role in International Science and Engineering,

27 Committee on the Organization and Management of Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program, August 2001.

28 A teraflop is a measure of a computer's speed and can be expressed as a trillion floating-point operations per second.

29 UK Office of Science and Technology, Large Facilities Strategic Road Map, 2002.

30 Examples of large data sets include large genomic databases, data gathered from global observations systems, seismic networks, automated physical science instruments, and social science databases.

31 R.H. Rich, The Role of the National Science Foundation in Supporting Advanced Network Infrastructure: Views of the Research Community, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., July 26, 1999.

32 National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (Public Law 81-0507).

33 Although NSF research centers are part People, part Ideas and part Tools, for budget convenience they are classified in the IDEAS category.

34 The amount appropriated by Congress was $84 million.

35 For example, the amount of data that will be produced by the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be colossal and require major advances in GRID network technology to fully exploit it.

36 The NSB will periodically assess the implementation of these recommendations.

37 The order of presentation does not imply a priority ranking.





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