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Evaluation and Assessment Capability (EAC)


Types of Evaluation

Formative Approach   The purpose of formative evaluation is to provide information to the project team about how their project can be modified and improved. It focuses on whether the project is being carried out as planned. Formative evaluation activities can include materials and software development and beta testing, focus groups to assess students' attitudes and responses to aspects of project design and materials, and experimental studies to determine the effect of specific design characteristics on students' mastery and retention of concepts and skills. While some of these activities also yield data related to project effectiveness, their primary goal is to provide information for project improvement.
Summative Approach   The purpose of summative evaluation is to produce information that can be used to make decisions about the overall success of the project. There are three specific and sequential types of summative evaluation questions that should be addressed for any project: Project Efficacy, Project Effectiveness and Project Costs. 
Needs Assessment  

Needs Assessment is a form of formative evaluation that determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need.

Structured Conceptualization   Structured conceptualization is a form of formative evaluation that helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes.
Implementation   Implementation evaluation is a form of formative evaluation that monitors the how closely the project follows the original design (fidelity) of the program or technology delivery. 
Portfolio Analysis   Portfolio Analysis is a systematic way to analyze the products and services that make up an portfolio of research investments.
Feasibility Study   A feasibility study is an analysis of the viability of an idea. The feasibility study focuses on helping answer the essential question of should we proceed with the proposed project idea
Goal - based  

Evaluation has typically involved measuring whether predetermined targets have been met. You may be familiar with the term SMART™ (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Timely) targets. These types of targets fall under the banner of goals-based evaluation.

Goals-based evaluations have objectively-set targets usually determined by people responsible for the funding or implementation of the project. Goals-based evaluation does not question whether the selected goals are valid, nor whether appropriate measures of effectiveness are being assessed.
Recent behavior change and research and evaluation practice proposes the use of goals-free evaluation.

Outcome   Outcome evaluation is a form of summative evaluation that investigates whether the program caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes.
Impact   Impact evaluation is a form of summative evaluation that focuses on long term, sustained changes as a result of the program activities. Impact evaluation is broader and assesses the overall or net effects, intended or unintended, of the program.
Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis   This is a form of summative evaluation,that address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their monetary costs and values.
Non-experimental designs   This is a form of quantitative research that is generally used only when one is trying to collect descriptive data. These types of studies are characterized by the absence of a control or comparison group. There are a number of non-experimental designs used in evaluation research.
Quasi-Established Designs   Quasi-Experimental design is a form of quantitative research that follows the basic structure of a true experiment, but without controlling for differences in subject selection. That is, the subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions.
Established Randomized Controlled Trials   Randomized Control Trials (RCT) are often perceived to be the gold standard of scientific testing for new medical interventions. They have become the standard that must be met by pharmaceutical companies in the process of working out what level of efficacy and safety can be achieved by an experimental drug.