I. Biographies of Members

II. Terms of Reference

III. State Department Views

IV. Summary of Recommendations

V. Presentations and Interactions

VI. International Agreements: Excerpts

VII. Bibliography


Appendix I.

Biographies of Members


Norman R. AugustineMr. Augustine, Chairman of the U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel, is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. He has served as Chairman of the Defense Science Board, the National Academy of Engineering, the White House/NASA Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Aeronautics Panel of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, as well as President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He holds a B.S.E. and M.S.E. from Princeton University, is the recipient of more than 10 honorary degrees and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served as a Trustee of Princeton University and Johns Hopkins University, and as a member of the Advisory Board of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He is a former Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and a former Under Secretary of the Army. Mr. Augustine has been to Antarctica twice and to the South Pole once.


Richard AlleyDr. Alley is a Professor of Geosciences and Associate of the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, where he has worked since 1988. He graduated with a Ph.D. in 1987 from University of Wisconsin and earned M.S. (1983) and B.S. (1980) degrees from Ohio State University, all in Geology. Dr. Alley teaches and conducts research on the climatic records, flow behavior, and sedimentary deposits of large ice sheets to aid in prediction of future changes in climate and sea level. He is a Packard Fellow, a former Presidential Young Investigator, and the 1996 recipient of the Horton Award of the American Geophysical Union Hydrology Section. Dr. Alley has served on a variety of advisory panels and steering committees for the National Science Foundation, targeted research activities, and professional societies. His Polar experience includes three field seasons in Antarctica, one to the Pole and five in Greenland.


John B. AndersonDr. Anderson is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Rice University. He earned his Ph.D. from Florida State University, an M.S. from University of New Mexico and a B.S. from University of South Alabama. He has published 160 articles and has written 150 abstracts, most dealing with Antarctic marine geology and coastal evolution. He has written or contributed to three books Glacial Marine Sedimentation, Paleo­climatic Significance of Glacial Marine Deposits, and Antarctic Marine Geology. Dr. Anderson was the Associate Editor of Geology from 1991 to 1993. He currently serves on the editorial boards of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and the American Geophysical Union-Antarctic Research Series. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and a member of the Steering Committee-West Antarctic Ice Sheet Study. He received the 1992 Gulf Coast Association of Geological Studies Outstanding Educator Award and the 1996 Rice University Graduate Teaching Award. Dr. Anderson has made 18 expeditions to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean region.


Rita R. ColwellDr. Colwell is President of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and Professor of Microbiology. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees from Purdue University and her Ph.D. from the University of Washington, Seattle. Dr. Colwell has received several honorary degrees, including an honorary Doctor of Science from her Alma Mater, Purdue University. Dr. Colwell was named the 1996 Maryland Legislature Outstanding Woman of the Year. Her other awards include the Medal of Distinction from Barnard College, Columbia University; Andrew White Medal, Loyola College; Purkinje Gold Medal, Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences; the Maryland State Civic Award (presented by Governor Schaefer); and the Fisher Award, American Society for Microbiology. Dr. Colwell is a past President and Board Chairman of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has served as President of the International Union of Microbiological Societies, the American Society of Microbiology, and Sigma Xi. She is a Member of the Health and Environment Research Advisory Committee (HERAC), Department of Energy; Board of Trustees, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; and Science Board, Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Colwell chaired the Crary Science and Engineering Center Panel, Division (now Office) of Polar Programs, and the Polar Research Committee, National Science Board, and served as Vice-Chair, Polar Research Board, National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Colwell has traveled to Antarctica four times and has made four trips to the South Pole.


Charles E. HessDr. Hess is Director of International Programs at the University of California, Davis. He earned his Ph.D. in Physiology, Horticulture and Plant Pathology and an M.S. degree from Cornell University, and holds an B.S. degree from Rutgers University. He is a former Assistant Secretary for Science and Education at the Department of Agriculture. He served as a Member and Vice-Chair of the National Science Board, Member of the U.S. Antarctic Safety Review Panel, and Member of the NSB Committee on the National Science Foundation Role in Polar Regions, which recommended the construction of the Crary Science and Engineering Center. Dr. Hess has made five trips to Antarctica and four trips to the South Pole.


Hansford T. (H.T.) JohnsonGeneral Johnson, USAF (Ret), is Chairman of the Greater Kelly Development Corp. in San Antonio, Texas. He is responsible for leading the transformation of the $7.5 billion Air Force depot into an industrial center that will perform government and commercial work. He served as the President and CEO of USAA Capital Corp. and was a member of the 1993 Base Closure Commission. As Commander in Chief of the U.S. Transportation Command, he led the movement of the troops and equipment to Panama in 1989 and the Persian Gulf in 1990-91. His command was also responsible for the air and sea lift to Antarctica, and he landed a C-5 Galaxy on the ice at McMurdo Station in 1991. Gen. Johnson was the Deputy Commander of the U.S. Central Command during the escorting of the Kuwaiti tankers through the Persian Gulf and Head of Operations in the Strategic Air Command during the raid on Libya in 1986. Gen. Johnson's responsibilities have included balancing Air Force programs at successive lower levels during a period of "downsizing." He was a combat pilot in Vietnam and was a graduate of the first class and later served as Assistant Professor of the USAF Academy. He holds Masters Degrees from Stanford in Aeronautics and Colorado in Business. Gen. Johnson has been to Antarctica twice and the South Pole once.


Lewis E. Link, Jr.Dr. Link is the Director of Research and Development of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Prior to this assignment, he served as the Director and Technical Director of the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, New Hampshire, and Fairbanks, Alaska, the principal federal center of expertise for cold regions engineering research serving both the Department of Defense (DoD) and civilian agencies. He has served as the Assistant Chief of the Corps at the Coastal Engineering Research Center and has been active in research, publishing over 90 technical papers and reports. He has served on or chaired advisory boards and technical committees for NASA, American Society of Civil Engineers, Society of American Military Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NATO, the Department of Defense, and various universities. Dr. Link earned a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from Pennsylvania State University, a M.S. in Civil Engineering from Mississippi State University and a B.S. in Geological Engineering from North Carolina State University. Dr. Link has been to Antarctica twice and to the South Pole twice.


Rudy K. PeschelRear Admiral Peschel, recently retired from the U .S. Coast Guard as Chief, Office of Navigation, overseeing that agency's polar operations, among other responsibilities concerning international and domestic waterway safety. Early-career aviation and sea duty took him to Arctic regions during the North Slope oil discovery and transportation development. Headquarters and field command billets involved him in capital planning, resource justification to the Office of Management and Budget and Congress, and major base transitions from the Department of Defense to USCG management. He was Deputy Commander of the multi-agency/multi-nation Western Hemisphere Drug Traffic Task Force and Commander of the ice-intensive Great Lakes District. He spent part of the 1996 icebreaking season at McMurdo Station and aboard USCGC Polar Star. He graduated in 1963 with a B.S. in Engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, in 1966 from Navy Flight Training at Pensacola, and in 1972 from Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey with an M.S. in Management Science. Adm. Peschel has been to the Antarctic and the South Pole twice.


Russell L. (Rusty) SchweickartMr. Schweickart is President and CEO of ALOHA Networks, Inc. (ANI). He received his B.S. and M. S. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956 and 1963. He served in the Air Force and the Massachusetts Air National Guard as a fighter pilot. Selected by NASA in the third group of astronauts in 1963, he flew as the Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 9's flight to the Moon in March 1969. He served as Commander of the backup crew on the first Skylab mission and subsequently as a Program Manager at NASA Headquarters. In 1977, he joined the administration of Governor Jerry Brown of California as his Advisor for Science and Technology. Appointed by the Governor to the California Energy Commission in 1979, Mr. Schweickart served as its Chairman for five years. In 1985, he founded the Association of Space Explorers, the professional organization of astronauts and cosmonauts, and was later the founder and president of Courier Satellite Services, Inc., and Executive Vice President of CTA Commercial Systems, Inc. In 1987-88, Mr. Schweickart chaired the National Science Foundation's Antarctic Safety Review Panel producing the "Safety in Antarctica" report. Mr. Schweickart has been to Antarctica three times and to the South Pole twice.


Susan SolomonDr. Solomon is a Senior Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory. She served as Head Project Scientist for the National Ozone Expedition at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in l986-7, and has been a leader in ozone research for more than a decade. Her theoretical and observational work was key to identifying the cause of the Antarctic ozone hole, and she has received numerous honors in recognition of those studies. She is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and a foreign associate of the French Academie des Sciences. She has previously served as Chair of the Advisory Committee for the National Science Foundation's Division of Polar Programs and as a member of the Polar Research Board, National Research Council. She earned her M. S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, her B. S. degree from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and she has three honorary doctorate degrees. Dr. Solomon has been to Antarctica four times and to the South Pole once.


Edward C. StoneDr. Stone has been Director of the Jet Propulsion Labotatory (JPL) since January 1991, and a Vice President and David Morrisroe Professor of Physics at California Institute of Technology. He earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from the University of Chicago. He is Chairman of the California Association for Research in Astronomy, which is responsible for the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. Dr. Stone is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the International Acacemy of Astronautics, and received the National Medal of Science from President Bush. He has been an investigator on 14 NASA missions and served as the Chief Scientist for the Voyager Mission. He has been to Antarctica once and to the South Pole once.


* * * * * *

The Panel expresses its heartfelt appreciation to Laura Cooper Herrera who handled all the mechanics of preparing the text of this report.


Appendix II.

Appendix III.

Appendix IV.

Summary of Recommendations

Recommendation I:The U.S., as a matter of national policy, should maintain a continued year-round presence in Antarctica, including at the South Pole.
Recommendation II:Promptly initiate steps to eliminate safety and health shortfalls at all U.S. facilities in Antarctica and, because of their magnitude, particularly at South Pole Station.
Recommendation III:The U.S. should continue to maintain permanent, facilities in Antarctica at Palmer, McMurdo and the South Pole.
Recommendation IV:International cooperation in scientific research and logistics support should be encouraged, but permanent facilities and infrastructure at permanent U.S. sites in Antarctica should be provided by and maintained by the U.S.
Recommendation V:The existing South Pole Station should be replaced with an Optimized Station. This construction can be accomplished by the year 2005 if the necessary budgetary steps are taken immediately (to initiate funding for the period FY98-FY02).
Recommendation VI:After having taken all prudent steps to reduce the cost of a new facility at South Pole Station and to seek other cost reductions to fund such a station, there remains a funding shortfall; therefore, additional funds in the amount of $95M (then-year dollars) over the five-year period FY98-FY02 should be added to the NSF budget to permit the phased replacement of the existing South Pole Station.
Recommendation VII:The NSF should prepare, and annually update, a long-range plan that coordinates science, support and facility needs to carry out the U.S. Antarctic Program. Implementation funds should be provided to support the long range plan.
Recommendation VIII:To the greatest extent possible, all support activities in Antarctica should be placed under a single prime contractor with oversight by a single individual/office designated by the NSF. Subsidiary organizational elements should be restructured to minimize overlap, duplication and interfaces.
Recommendation IX:The NSF should implement mechanisms to include science support costs as an explicit rather than implicit portion of the evaluation of proposed scientific projects that make up the USAP.
Recommendation X:The NSF and its contractor, Antarctic Support Associates, should review those functions no longer to be performed by the DOD to ensure that those functions are transferred to the recipient organization in the most efficient possible manner...or, where possible, eliminated. Similarly, the U.S. Coast Guard's operating budget should continue to absorb the level of fixed icebreaker costs that exceed reimbursement.
Recommendation XI:The NSF should seek advance arrangements with governmental and commercial geostationary satellite operators to make such satellites systematically available as they near the end of their economic commercial life.
Recommendation XII: The U.S. Government, presumably the Department of State, should convene those U.S. Government organizations having interests in Antarctica and develop a policy regarding the increased tourism to be expected in Antarctica in the years ahead and, further, should work with other interested governments to address this issue in a proactive and cooperative manner.

Appendix V.

Presentations and Interactions

The Panel, in its deliberations, was greatly assisted by presentations by, or conversations with, the following individuals:


Dr. Joseph Bordogna, Acting Deputy Director

Mr. Bill Bryant, Contracting Officer, Contracts Policy and Oversight

Dr. Karl Erb, Senior Science Advisor, Office of the Director, and Liaison to the Panel

Mr. Guy Guthridge, Executive Secretary to the Panel, Office of the Director

Mr. Joseph Kull, Director - Budget and Finance Division, and Chief Financial Officer

Dr. Neal Lane, Director

Mr. Larry Rudolph, General Counsel

From the Office of Polar Programs

Mr. David Bresnahan, Systems Manager, Operations and Logistics

Mr. Frank Brier, Facilities, Engineering and Construction Program Manager

Mr. Erick Chiang, Acting Deputy Director

Mr. Dwight D. Fisher, Acting Section Head, Polar Research Support Section

Ms. Joyce Jatko, Environmental Officer

Dr. Harry Mahar, Safety and Health Officer

Mr. Al Martin, NSF Station Manager, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

Ms. Altie Metcalf, Budget and Planning Officer

Dr. Dennis Peacock, Section Head, Antarctic Sciences Section

Mr. John Rand, South Pole Engineering Projects Manager

Mr. Patrick D. Smith, Technology Development Project Manager

Dr. Cornelius W. Sullivan, Director

Mr. Alexander Sutherland, Ocean Projects Manager

nsf support

Colonel Archibald Berberian, Chief of Staff, New York Air National Guard

Dr. William Detrich, Chair, Palmer Station Users Committee

Dr. Jay Farmwald, Director of Health Facilities, Alaska Public Health Service

Dr. Hank Grant, Decision Support Associates

Dr. Dave Hofmann, Director, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, NOAA

Mr. Jim Holik, Science Cruise Coordinator, Antarctic Support Associates

Ms. Kate Jensen, Former NOAA Field Team Leader at South Pole Station

Mr. Jon Kumin, Kumin and Associates

Dr. Donal Manahan, Chair, McMurdo Area Users Committee

Dr. Doug Martinson, Chair, Research Vessel Oversight Committee

Dr. Robert Morse, Chair, South Pole Users Committee

Dr. Samuel Mukasa, Chair, Office of Polar Programs Advisory Committee

Mr. Jerry Mullins, Polar Programs Manager, U.S. Geological Survey

Ms. Ann Peoples, Former ASA Station Manager for McMurdo and Palmer Stations

Ms. Karen Schwall-Meyers, Former ASA Station Manager, McMurdo Station

Captain C. Hugh Smith, USN, Commanding Officer, Naval Support Force Antarctica

Dr. H. Guyford Stever, Former Director, National Science Foundation


Dr. Robert Bindschadler, Glaciologist, NASA

The Honorable George E. Brown, Jr., U.S. House of Representatives

Mr. Harlan Cohen, Department of State

Dr. Jack Gibbons, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy

Dr. T. J. Glauthier, Office of Management and Budget

The Honorable Jerry Lewis, U.S. House of Representatives

The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski, United States Senate

Dr. Ernie Moniz, Associate Director for Science, Office of Science and Technology Policy

Dr. William Nitze, Assistant Administrator for Environmental Activities, EPA

Mr. R. Tucker Scully, Director of the Office of Oceans, Department of State

The Honorable F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr., U.S. House of Representatives

Mr. Brad Smith, Director, Strategic Environmental R&D Program Office, Arlington, Virginia

Mr. George Troup, Embassy of New Zealand, Washington, D. C.

Ms. Alexandra Tidswell, Embassy of New Zealand, Washington, D. C.

The Honorable Timothy E. Wirth, Assistant Secretary of State for Global Affairs

Ambassador John Wood, Embassy of New Zealand, Washington, D.C.


Antarctic Support Associates (ASA)

Mr. Sam Feola, Director, Logistics

Mr. Pat Haggerty, Project Manager, South Pole Station Modernization

Mr. Ronald G. Koger, Project Director

Mr. John Lomax, Procurement

Mr. Craig Martin, Director, Engineering

Ms. Janet Phillips, Area Manager, Palmer Station

Mr. Chris Rhone, Director, Information Systems

Mr. Chris Shepherd, Science Support

Mr. Blair Thueson, Budget and Planning Processes


Mr. Ian Diamond, General Manager, Engineering, Air New Zealand

Ms. Kim Fassbender, Program Coordination Specialist, NSF

Mr. Graeme Hills, Component Maintenance Manager, Air New Zealand

Mr. Richard Ison, Aircraft Maintenance Manager, Air New Zealand

Mr. Mike McIlroy, Supervisor, Clothing Distribution Center, ASA

Mr. Ian Matthews, Manager, Marketing, Air New Zealand

Mr. Brian Perry, Product Support Engineer, Air New Zealand

CDR John Stotz, USN, Commanding Officer, Naval Antarctic Support Unit


Mr. Art Brown, Manager, Specialized Services Support, NSF

Mr. Earl Ferguson, Supervisor, Inventory Management, ASA

Captain Jeffrey Garrett, U.S. Coast Guard, Commanding Officer, USCGC Polar Sea

Dr. Jack Gibbons, Science Advisor to the President

Mr. Bill Haals, Operations Manager, ASA

Mr. John Hatcher, Manager, Waste Management, ASA

Mr. Joe Heil, Supervisor, Field Operations Communication Center, ASA

Dr. Julie Palais, Glaciology Program Manager, National Science Foundation

Mr. Mitch Perry, Manager, Black Island Communications Ground Station

Mr. Tom Quinn, Fixed Wing Coordinator, ASA

Mr. Jim Raml, Supervisor, Marble Point

Mr. Mark Reese, Office of Aircraft Services, Department of the Interior

CDR Bill Stedman, USN, Commanding Officer, Antarctic Development Squadron, Six (VXE-6)

Mr. Brian Stone, Manager, Terminal Operations, ASA

Dr. Mario Zuchelli, Director, Italian Antarctic Program

Albert P. Crary Science &

Engineering Center, McMurdo

Dr. Pat Bryan, Biochemist, Florida Institute of Technology

Mr. Rudy Dichtl, Manager, Science Technical Services, ASA

Dr. Nelia Dunbar, Principal Investigator, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

Dr. Diana Freckman, Principal Investigator, Desert Research Institute

Mr. Glenn Grant, Science Technician, ASA

Dr. Robert Holmes, University of Wisconsin

Mr. Larry Hothem, U.S. Geological Survey

Mr. Bjorn Johns, UNAVCO (precision Global Positioning Systems service)

Dr. Steve Kottmeier, Manager, Laboratory Sciences, ASA

Dr. Bill McIntosh, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

Mr. Dave Mikesell, Analytical Chemist, ASA

Mr. Robbie Score, Sr. Assistant Supervisor, Laboratory Operations, ASA

Mr. Chris Shepherd, Director Science Support, ASA

Mr. Dom Tedeschi, Teacher (Antarctic education and research integration)

Mr. Mike Varney, Facilities Engineer, ASA

Science Support in antarctica

Ms. Kathy Young, Berg Field Center, ASA

Mr. Tom Pennel, Allied Signal

Ms. Robin Abbott, Helicopter Coordinator, ASA

Mr. Hardy Foster, Allied Signal

Mr. Jack Hawkins, Project Manager, Petroleum Helicopters, Inc. (PHI)

Mr. Brooks Montgomery, Field Safety Training, ASA

Mr. Ron Nugent, Mechanical Engineering Center, ASA

Ms. Jill Vereyken, Field Services Manager, ASA

Dry Valleys/Lake Hoare

Ms. Paula Adkins, Long Term Ecological Research, ASA

Dr. Diana Freckman, Principal Investigator, Desert Research Institute

Dr. Beth Hartman, Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University

Dr. Dave Marchant, Principal Investigator, Boston University

Dr. Diane McKnight, Desert Research Institute

Dr. Sarah Mills, Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University

Dr. Sophie Webb, H.T. Harvey and Associates

Dr. Stephanie Zasor, H.T. Harvey and Associates

Scott Base (Antarctica New Zealand)

Mr. Julian Tangaere, Manager


Mr. Lester Bracey, Supervisor, Food Service

Mr. Chris Cleavelin, Science Technician, ASA

Ms. Sandra Collins, Science Technician, ASA

Mr. Neil Conant, Communications Operator

Dr. Hugh Cowan, Station Physician

Mr. David Fischer, Area Manager, ASA

Ms. B.K. Grant, Acting Information Systems Supervisor, ASA

Mr. Drew Hampton, Heavy Equipment Mechanic

Dr. Doyal Harper, Principal Investigator, Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica

Ms. Shawndra Holmberg, Safety, Environment, and Health Coordinator

Ms. Gloria Hutchings, Manager, Station Stores, ASA

Mr. Martin Lewis, Operations Manager, ASA

Ms. Diana Logan, Supervisor, Logistics, ASA

Mr. Jeff Lutz, Senior Meteorologist, ASA

Mr. Don Neff, Science Coordinator, ASA

Dr. Robert Pernic, Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica

Mr. Chris Rock, Facilities Engineer, ASA

Dr. Rolf Sinclair, NSF Representative

Ms. Judy Smith, Inventory Control Specialist

Dr. Antony Stark, Principal Investigator, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Dr. Wayne Sukow, NSF Representative

Mr. Paul Sullivan, Science Technician, ASA

Mr. Carlton Walker, Facilities, Maintenance and Construction Supervisor, ASA

Ms. Paula Walker, Senior Administrative

Coordinator, ASA


Dr. Sridhar Anandakrishnan, Pennsylvania State University

Dr. T. Bania-Bu, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Dr. Paul Berkman, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University

Mr. Mark Boland, NOAA

Dr. William Cassidy, University of Pittsburgh

Mr. Paul J. Charpentier, University of Illinois

Mr. Mike Courtemanche, ASA

Dr. Ralph Harvey, Principal Investigator, Case Western Reserve University

Dr. Peter Holden, University of California, Davis

Dr. Anita Jones, Deputy Director of Defense for Research and Engineering, DoD

Dr. Barclay Kamb, Principal Investigator, California Institute of Technology

Dr. Deneb Karentz, University of San Francisco

Dr. Albrecht Karle, University of Wisconsin

Mr. Tim Makovicka, Principal Investigator, University of Nebraska

Dr. Carol Raymond, Principal Investigator, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Dr. Raymond Smith, Principal Investigator, University of California, Santa Barbara

Dr. Donald Voigt, Pennsylvania State University

Dr. Ed Waddington, Principal Investigator, University of Washington

Dr. Wes Weather, University of California, Davis


Appendix VI.

International Agreements: Excerpts


signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for management of Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings - the 21st Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in the Hague, Netherlands, in May 1996.

Currently, there are 43 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 17 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The U.S. and some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The U.S. does not recognize the claims of others.

The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the U.S., and Russia. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the U. K.

Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Ukraine (1992).

Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies
Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims, and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force. No activities while the Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting, or denying a claim
Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees south
Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given
Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states
Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ
Articles 12, 13, 14:
deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations

Other significant international agreements under the Antarctic Treaty system:

Conservation of Seals

Under the Antarctic Treaty, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals entered into force in 1978. This convention prohibits the taking of some species and limits the take of others.

Whale Sanctuary

In 1994 the International Whaling Commission designated the southern ocean south of 40°S (south of 60°S between 50°W and 130°W) as a whale sanctuary. Commercial whaling is not allowed in the sanctuary.

Marine Living Resources Convention

The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is an international agreement to assure that (1) any harvesting or associated activities in Antarctic waters will be done in such a way that the size of the harvested species will not fall below levels that will assure stable recruitment and (2) the ecological relationships among harvested, dependent, and related populations will be maintained. The USA is a ratifying nation. Title III of Public Law 98-623 (the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Convention Act of 198416 USC 2431 et seq.) provides the legislative authority necessary to implement the convention in the USA. The law makes it unlawful to harvest marine species in violation of the convention, and it provides for certain other activities. Marine biologists, other marine scientists, and ship operators should be familiar with this law.

Protocol on Environmental Protection

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and its five annexes respond to the need for a comprehensive system to protect the Antarctic environment. The parties to the Antarctic Treaty held a special consultative meeting to discuss and explore proposals for protection of the Antarctic environment and its dependent and associated ecosystems. This meeting consisted of several sessions held over a year. At the final session in Madrid, Spain, in October 1991, representatives of the Antarctic Treaty nations signed the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, including annexes I-IV, which cover environmental impact assessment, conservation, waste disposal and management, and prevention of marine pollution. Annex V (special area protection and management) was adopted by the 16th Antarctic Treaty consultative meeting, also held in October 1991. In the Protocol, the representatives agree to means for providing comprehensive protection of Antarctica's environment and dependent and associated ecosystems in order to preserve the region as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science. The protocol bans mining (see section 5.2).

The protocol will enter into force when all the signatory nations deposit their instruments of ratification. U.S. PL-104-227, the "Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1996," signed 2 October 1996 by the President, implements the provisions of the Protocol. The Senate had already given its advice and consent to ratification of the Protocol. Deposit of the U.S. ratification with the Antarctic Treaty System awaits completion of regulations pursuant to PL-104-227.

To the extent possible, the U.S. complies with the Protocol. The U.S. legislation when enacted may contain provisions different from those in the Protocol.


Appendix VII.


Americans in Antarctica 1775-1948, by Kenneth J. Bertrand, American Geographical Society, 1971

Antarctica: Authentic Accounts of Life and Exploration in the World's Highest, Driest, Windiest, Coldest, and Most Remote Continent, edited by Charles Neider, Random House, 1972

Antarctic Conquest: The Great Explorers in Their Own Words, edited by Walker Chapman, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1965

Antarctic Research: Program Announcement and Proposal Guide (NSF 96-93), National Science Foundation, April 1996

Cold. The Record of an Antarctic Sledge Journey, by L. M. Gould, Brewer, Warren, and Putnam, 1931

Endurance, Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing, McGraw Hill, 1959

Facts About the U.S. Antarctic Program (NSF 92-134), National Science Foundation, October 1994

90 Degrees South: The Story of the American South Pole Conquest, by Paul A. Siple, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1959

United States Antarctic Program, Committee on Fundamental Science, National Science and Technology Council, April 1996

Poles Apart: Parallel Visions of the Arctic and Antarctic, text and photographs by Galen Rowell, University of California Press, 1995

South Light: A Journey to the Last Continent, by Michael Parfit, Macmillan, 1985

The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica, by Stephen J. Pyne, University of Iowa Press, 1986

The Worst Journey in the World, by Apsley Cherry-Garrard, first published 1922



AESOPS - Antarctic Environment and Southern Ocean Process Study

AMANDA - Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array

ANG - Air National Guard

ASA - Antarctic Support Associates, Inc.

ATC - Air traffic control

CARA - Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica

CCAMLR - Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CFCs - Chlorinated fluorocarbons

CRAMRA - Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources Activities

DOD - Department of Defense

DU - Dobson units

FTE - Full-time-equivalent

FY - Fiscal year (begins 1 October in U.S. Government)

IGY - International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958

JGOFS - Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

LC-130 - Ski-equipped C-130 (four-engine transport aircraft)

LEO - Low Earth orbit

LTER - Long term ecological research

M - Million

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NSC - National Security Council

NSF - National Science Foundation

NSFA - Naval Support Force Antarctica

NSTC - National Science and Technology Council

NYANG - New York Air National Guard

OPP - Office of Polar Programs, NSF

PHI - Petroleum Helicopters Inc.

R/V - Research vessel

SEH - Safety, environmental protection, and health

TOMS - Total ozone mapping spectrometer

USAF - United States Air Force

USAP - U.S. Antarctic Program

USARP - U. S. Antarctic Research Program (Component of USAP)

USCG - United States Coast Guard

USGS - United States Geological Survey

USNS - United States Naval Ship

VXE-6 - Antarctic Development Squadron 6, U.S. Navy

WAIS - West Antarctic Ice Sheet