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Environmental Science And Engineering For The 21st Century: The Role of the National Science Foundation [NSB 00-22, February 2000]

Title Page

National Science Board




1     Introduction

2    The Larger Context

3    Scope of
NSF's Current

4    Input Received About Unmet Needs and Opportunities

5    Findings and

6    Conclusion


Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Final Page


Following are the works cited in this report. Appendix B contains a comprehensive listing of the literature reviewed by the Board.

Anderson, R.M., and R.M. May. 1991.
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Arrow, K., B. Bolin, R. Costanza, P. Dasgupta, C. Folke, C.S. Hollings, B.O. Jansson, S. Levin, K.G. Maler, C. Perrings, and D. Pimentel. 1995.
Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Science 268:520-51.

Ayensu, E., D. van R. Claasen, M. Collins, A. Dearing L., Fresco, M. Gadgil, H.Gitay, G. Glaser, C. Juma, J. Krebs, R. Lenton, J. Lubchenco, J.A. McNeely, H.A. Mooney, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, M. Ramos, P. Raven, W.V. Reid, C. Samper, J. Sarukhan, P. Schei, J.G. Tundisi, R.T. Watson, X. Guanhua, and A.H. Zakri. 1999.
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Blockstein, D.E. 1997.
New environmental institute needed to focus on emerging issues. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy Winter: 133-37.

Carpenter, S.R., N.F. Caraco, D.L. Correll, R.W. Howarth, A.N. Sharpley, and V.H. Smith. 1998a.
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. 1998b.
Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-68.

Carpenter, S.R., W.A. Brock, and P.C. Hanson. 1999a.
Ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management. Conservation Ecology 3(2). Available at

Carpenter, S.R., D. Ludwig, and W.A. Brock. 1999b.
Management of eutrophication for lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications 9:751-71.

Chichilnisky, G., and G. Heal. 1998.
Economic returns from the biosphere—Commentary. Nature 391:629-30.

Committee for the National Institute for the Environment (CNIE). 1994.
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Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). 1995.
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Crumley, C.L. 1993.
Analyzing historic ecotonal shifts. Ecological Applications 3:377-84.

Daily, G.C., ed. 1997.
Nature's Services. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Daily, G.C., S. Alexander, P.R. Ehrlich, L. Goulder, J. Lubchenco, P.A. Matson, H.A. Mooney, S. Postel, S.H. Schneider, D. Tilman, and G.M. Woodwell. 1997.
Ecosystem services: Benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems. Issues in Ecology 2:1-16. Available at

Dasgupta, P., S. Levin, and J. Lubchenco. 2000.
Economic pathways to ecological sustainability: Challenges for the new millennium. BioScience. In press (April).

DieffenbacherKrall, A.C. 1996.
Paleo- and historical ecology of the Cutler grasslands, Cutler, Maine (USA): Implications for future management. Natural Areas Journal 16:3-13.

Dobson, A.P., and E.R. Carpenter. 1996.
Infectious diseases and human population history. BioScience 46:115-26.

Frondorf, A., and G. Waggoner. 1996.
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Hammett, J.E. 1992.
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The Heinz Center. 1999.
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Hjelle, B., B. Anderson, N. Torrez-Martinez, W. Song, W.L. Gannon, and T.L. Yates. 1995.
Prevalence and geographic genetic variation of Hantaviruses of New World harvest mice (Reithrodontomys): Identification of a divergent genotype from a Costa Rican Reithrodontomys mexicanus. Virology 207:452-59.

Keller, D., P. Ettestad, C.M. Sewell, R. Rains, S. Englender, T. Woods, J. Pape, D. Tanda, J. Reynolds, R. Hoffman, G. Mertz, G. Scully, D. Mapel, F. Koster, J. DeLury, C. Hansbarger, B. Hjelle, T. Yates, J. Iralu, C. Freeman, B. Hroch, A. Nunes, D. Loretto, D. Peter, R. Fulgham, L. Courtois, M. Mattson, R. Charleston, and J. Cheek. 1998.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—Colorado and New Mexico. Journal of the American Medical Association 280(6):504-05.

Levin, S.A. 1999.
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Low, B., R. Costanza, E. Ostrom, J. Wilson, and C.P. Simon. 1999.
Human-ecosystem interactions: A dynamic integrated model. Ecological Economics 31(2):227-42.

Lubchenco, J. 1998.
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Lubchenco, J., A.M. Olson, L.B. Brubaker, S.R. Carpenter, M.M. Holland, S.P. Hubbell, S.A. Levin, J.A. MacMahon, P.A. Matson, J.M. Melillo, H.A. Mooney, C.H. Peterson, H.R. Pulliam, L.A. Real, P.J. Regal, and P.G. Risser. 1991.
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Muller, F. 1992.
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. 1997.
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Naiman, R.J., J.J. Magnuson, D.M. McKnight, and J.A. Stanford. 1995.
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National Research Council (NRC). 1993.
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National Science Board (NSB). 1998a.
Charge, Committee on Programs and Plans, Task Force on the Environment. NSB 98-161. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

. 1998b.
National Science Board Strategic Plan. NSB 98-215. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at

. 1999.
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National Science Foundation. 1995.
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Nelson, K.E., R.A. Clayton, S.R. Gill, M.L. Gwinn, R.J. Dodson, D.H. Haft, E.K. Hickey, J.D. Peterson, W.C. Nelson, K.A. Ketchum, L. McDonald, T.R. Utterback, J.A. Malek, K.D. Linher, M.M. Garrett, A.M. Stewart, M.D. Cotton, M.S. Pratt, C.A. Phillips, D. Richardson, J. Heidelberg, G.G. Sutton, R.D. Fleischmann, J.A. Eisen, O. White, S.L. Salzberg, H.O. Smith, J.C. Venter, and C.M. Fraser. 1999.
Evidence for lateral gene transfer between archaea and bacteria from genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima. Nature 399:323-29.

National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). 1994.
Technology for a Sustainable Future. Washington, DC.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1998.
The OECD Megascience Forum: Workshop on Global-scale Issues. Paris. Available at:

Ostrom, E., J. Burger, C.B. Field, R.B. Norgaard, and D. Policansky. 1999.
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Pace, M.L., and P.M. Groffman. 1998.
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Parmenter, C.A., T.L. Yates, R.R. Parmenter, and J.L. Dunnum. 1999.
Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1):118-25.

Parmenter, R.R., J.W. Brunt, D.I. Moore, and S. Ernest. 1993.
The Hantavirus epidemic in the Southwest: Rodent population dynamics and the implications for transmission of Hantavirus-associated Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (HARDS) in the Four Corners Region. Report to the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.

Pennisi, E. 1999.
Is it time to uproot the tree of life? Science 284:1305-307.

President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST), Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystems. 1998.
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President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC). 1998.
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Real, L.A. 1996.
Sustainability and the ecology of infectious disease. BioScience 46:88-97.

Resetar, S., B. Lachman, R. Lempert, and M. Pinto. 1999.
Technology Forces at Work: Profiles of Environmental Research and Development at DuPont, Intel, Monsanto, and Xerox. MR-1068-OSTP. Washington, DC. RAND, Science and Technology Policy Institute.

Schlesinger, W.H. 1997.
Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press, Inc.

Sohn, Y., E. Moran, and F. Gurri. 1999.
Deforestation in North Central Yucatan, 1985-1995: Mapping secondary succession of forest and agricultural land use in Sotuta using the Cosine of the Angle Concept. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 65(8):947-58.

Tilman, D. 1989.
Ecological experimentation: Strengths and conceptual problems. In G.E. Likens, ed., Long-Term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, pp. 136-57. New York: Springer-Verlag.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 1999a.
The Quality of Our Nation's Waters—Nutrients and Pesticides. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225. Washington, DC.

. 1999b.
Summary Report of the Workshop on Enhcancing Integrated Science. Available at

U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. 1998.
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United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 1995.
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Vitousek, P. M., J. Aber, R.W. Howarth, G.E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D.W. Schindler, W.H. Schlesinger, and G.D. Tilman. 1997a.
Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Causes and consequences. Issues in Ecology 1:1-15. Available at

Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997b.
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World Meterorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme (WMO/UNEP). 1998.
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion. Report No. 44. Geneva.

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