This working paper is based on the GSS institutions' reported and imputed data in 2007 to 2012. Results presented herein, with the exception of tables 3 and 4 and associated text, use imputed data and can therefore be reproduced using the GSS public-use data. Tables 3 and 4, which look at the ability of schools and units to report the data, use reported, rather than imputed, values. The analysis comparing the institution-level GSS NFR counts with the R&D expenditure and personnel data uses the 2012 GSS and the 2012 HERD data.

The 2010 GSS postdoc expansion began to address NSF's concerns about the reporting of NFRs and postdocs as well as the need for additional data on both. The expansion of the GSS Code List in 2007, the change in focus from degree-granting graduate programs to eligible units regardless of degree-granting status, and the appointment of separate postdoc coordinators improved coverage of postdocs in SEH fields. The expansion of the NFR and postdoc data items and the appointment of more knowledgeable postdoc coordinators improved data reporting within extant units.

In addition to improving the reporting of overall NFR and postdoc counts, the GSS in 2010 and subsequent years provides more detailed information on postdocs, including race and ethnicity for U.S. citizens and permanent residents, federal and nonfederal sources of financial support and support mechanism, type of doctoral degree (such as MD, PhD, or MD/PhD), and origin of doctoral degree (United States or a foreign country). Breakdowns of these data are available in Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering at