Sex: Field of study
The growth in number of S&E doctorates awarded to women over the past 20 years has exceeded the growth in male S&E doctorates by a substantial margin. In 2014, the number of S&E doctorates awarded to men reached 23,298, an increase of 26% (nearly 5,000 more doctorates) over the 1994 total. The number of female S&E doctorates nearly doubled over the period, increasing by more than 8,500 doctorates from 1994 to 2014. Although women's share of S&E doctorates awarded increased from 32% in 1994 to 42% in 2009, this proportion has changed little since then.
In non-S&E fields, the number of female doctorate recipients has grown at a slower pace (7%) over the past 20 years while the number of male doctorates in those fields has declined by 13%. Women's share of non-S&E doctorates increased from 52% in 1994 to 57% in 2002, and has remained near this rate since that year.