by Caren A. Arbeit and Peter Einaudi[1] and Kelly H. Kang[2]

The number of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students increased by 5.5% between 2013 and 2014, rising from 570,300 to 601,883. Much of this growth stems from a continuing increase in the enrollment of foreign graduate students on temporary visas, which grew by 7.4% between 2012 and 2013, and by 16.0% between 2013 and 2014 (table 1).[3]

TABLE 1. Graduate enrollment in science and engineering fields, by enrollment status, sex, citizenship, race, and ethnicity: 2009–14

a In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study. The study identified potentially eligible but not previously surveyed U.S. academic institutions with master’s- or doctorate-granting programs in science, engineering, or health. A total of 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions offering mostly practitioner-based graduate degrees were determined to be ineligible.
b Race and ethnicity data are available for U.S. citizens and permanent residents only.
c Reporting of race and ethnicity in 2008–14 has been affected by changes in the reporting of race and ethnicity in the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Starting in 2008, IPEDS respondents were asked to use a new classification that included a category for two or more races and separate reporting of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders from Asians. The new classification was optional in 2008 and 2009 IPEDS but mandatory beginning in 2010 and may have contributed to a significant increase in the reporting of Not Hispanic or Latino, more than one race.
d More rigorous follow-up was done in recent years with institutions regarding the exclusion of practitioner-oriented graduate degree programs in psychology and in other health (a subfield of health). This change may affect interpretation of trends in these fields.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

Table 1 Source Data: Excel file

% change
Characteristic 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014olda 2014newa 2009–
14old
2013–
14old
2013–
14new
2014old
–new
All surveyed fields 631,645 632,652 626,820 627,243 633,010 650,738 666,586 3.0 2.8 5.3 2.4
Science and engineering 545,685 556,532 560,941 561,418 570,300 587,161 601,883 7.6 3.0 5.5 2.5
Full-time enrollment 398,498 409,107 411,168 414,384 424,508 440,523 447,096 10.5 3.8 5.3 1.5
First time 115,755 118,492 120,135 121,856 127,725 134,896 137,783 16.5 5.6 7.9 2.1
Part-time enrollment 147,187 147,425 149,773 147,034 145,792 146,638 154,787 -0.4 0.6 6.2 5.6
Male 307,936 316,051 318,209 318,870 324,913 338,940 348,390 10.1 4.3 7.2 2.8
Female 237,749 240,481 242,732 242,548 245,387 248,221 253,493 4.4 1.2 3.3 2.1
U.S. citizens and permanent residentsb 382,342 390,403 392,160 385,343 381,225 373,378 382,512 -2.3 -2.1 0.3 2.4
Full-time enrollment 256,503 263,871 262,043 258,477 256,211 251,858 253,886 -1.8 -1.7 -0.9 0.8
First time 75,321 77,242 75,394 73,704 72,731 70,898 72,170 -5.9 -2.5 -0.8 1.8
Part-time enrollment 125,839 126,532 130,117 126,866 125,014 121,520 128,626 -3.4 -2.8 2.9 5.8
Hispanic or Latino 27,265 28,609 30,808 31,406 32,819 33,146 35,132 21.6 1.0 7.0 6.0
Not Hispanic or Latino
American Indian or Alaska Native 2,549 2,500 2,392 2,188 2,198 2,048 2,112 -19.7 -6.8 -3.9 3.1
Asianc 31,754 32,185 33,147 32,700 32,917 32,981 33,745 3.9 0.2 2.5 2.3
Black or African American 29,973 31,094 32,197 31,338 30,911 29,714 30,482 -0.9 -3.9 -1.4 2.6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanderc 1,125 1,088 1,008 920 882 876 902 -22.1 -0.7 2.3 3.0
White 250,443 255,256 256,096 250,783 246,518 240,295 245,103 -4.1 -2.5 -0.6 2.0
More than one racec 2,300 4,989 6,103 7,578 8,015 9,136 9,335 297.2 14.0 16.5 2.2
Unknown race and ethnicity 36,933 34,682 30,409 28,430 26,965 25,182 25,701 -31.8 -6.6 -4.7 2.1
Temporary visa holders 163,343 166,129 168,781 176,075 189,075 213,783 219,371 30.9 13.1 16.0 2.6
Full-time enrollment 141,995 145,236 149,125 155,907 168,297 188,665 193,210 32.9 12.1 14.8 2.4
First time 40,434 41,250 44,741 48,152 54,994 63,998 65,613 58.3 16.4 19.3 2.5
Part-time enrollment 21,348 20,893 19,656 20,168 20,778 25,118 26,161 17.7 20.9 25.9 4.2
Healthd 85,960 76,120 65,879 65,825 62,710 63,577 64,703 -26.0 1.4 3.2 1.8

Between 2009 and 2014 full-time S&E graduate enrollments grew by 12.2%, from 398,498 students to 447,096 students. Institutional funding increased at a similar pace (11.7%) during this period. However, the number of graduate students primarily supported by federal sources declined by 8.2%, while those primarily on self-support increased by 26.7% (figure 1).

FIGURE 1. Full-time graduate enrollment in science and engineering, by primary source of financial support: 2009–14
FIGURE 1. Full-time graduate enrollment in science and engineering, by primary source of financial support: 2009–14.

a Includes other U.S. sources and foreign sources.

NOTES: The long dash lines from 2013 to 2014 show the impact of the frame expansion on the counts of fulltime graduate students by primary source of support. In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study. The study identified potentially eligible but not previously surveyed U.S. academic institutions with master's- or doctorate-granting programs in science, engineering, or health. A total of 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions offering mostly practitioner-based graduate degrees were determined to be ineligible.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

Figure 1 Source Data: Excel file

These and other findings presented herein are from the 2014 Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering (GSS), cosponsored by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This report focuses primarily on the graduate students and postdoctoral researchers (postdocs) within S&E fields, though totals in selected health fields are presented for comparison. Further analysis of GSS graduate enrollment data for selected health fields can be obtained from NIH.

Changes to the GSS Institutional Frame

In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study that identified potentially eligible but not previously surveyed U.S. academic institutions with master's- or doctorate-granting science, engineering, and selected health (SEH) programs. The frame update added 21,703 graduate students in SEH fields from 151 newly eligible institutions, and excluded two private for-profit institutions that enrolled 6,981 students in primarily practitioner oriented graduate programs in 2013. See "Data Sources and Limitations" for more information.

Because of these changes, this InfoBrief and all data tables associated with the 2014 GSS data are presented in two ways:

Many of the overall trends in 2014 continue to reflect those seen in 2012 and 2013.[4]

Graduate Student Enrollment in S&E

In 2014, a total of 601,883 graduate students were enrolled in S&E master's or doctorate programs (table 1; see 2014new). Graduate enrollment within previously eligible extant GSS institutions rose by 3.0% (16,861 students) from 2013 (2013–14old), while the institutional frame update led to a net increase of 14,722 S&E graduate students (2014old–14new).

Foreign graduate enrollment continued to rise in 2014. The 13.1% increase in temporary visa holders within extant institutions was the largest single-year increase since the survey began collecting citizenship data in 1980.

The influx of nearly 25,000 foreign graduate students overshadowed the 2.1% decline in domestic graduate enrollment; 7,847 fewer U.S. citizens and permanent residents were enrolled in S&E graduate programs than in 2013. The proportion of foreign S&E graduate students on temporary visas in extant institutions was 36.4%, 6.5 percentage points higher than the proportion (29.9%) in 2009.

Sources of full-time graduate student support have shifted from federal sources toward self-support as the number of students has grown (figure 1). Since 2009, the percent of self-supported full-time students in extant institutions increased from 33.7% to 37.5%, while the percent of students receiving federal support declined from 19.0% to 15.7%. The number of graduate students supported by federal funding declined by 6,462. In the last year alone (2013–14old), the percent of graduate students supported by federal funding declined by 5.3%. Institutional support since 2009 has remained stable at about 40.2%, even with graduate enrollment growing. Compounding the trend toward self-support, there was a 1.3% decline in "other" sources of support (figure 1).

Overall, the number of men enrolled in S&E graduate programs increased by 7.2% over 2013, with 2.8% stemming from the 2014 frame update (table 1). The number of women enrolled in S&E graduate programs in 2014 (253,493) represented a 3.3% increase from 2013, with 2.1% coming from the frame update. In the last 5 years, the growth of male S&E graduate students has exceeded that of female graduate students, resulting in a decline in the proportion of female S&E graduate students from 43.6% in 2009 to 42.3% in 2014old. Foreign enrollment has contributed to this decline: almost two-thirds (65.3%) of foreign S&E graduate students from 2009 through 2014old were men compared with just over half (53.0%) of the U.S. citizen and permanent resident S&E graduate students.

The rise in computer sciences and electrical engineering enrollments in 2013 continued in 2014. Among previously eligible institutions, graduate enrollment in computer sciences increased by 22.1% and electrical engineering increased by 9.9% (table 2; 2013–14old). These fields also saw the greatest increases from the frame update. More than half of the net difference in total S&E graduate enrollments resulting from the frame update was in computer sciences (7,780 of 14,722). Through enrollment growth and frame expansion, computer science graduate enrollment rose by a combined 35.9% in 2014, from 56,339 to 76,546. Electrical engineering graduate enrollment had the second-largest overall growth at 13.9% (6,347 students) from 2013 to 2014, with an increase of 4,489 students within extant institutions and 1,858 students enrolled at new institutions.

TABLE 2. Graduate enrollment in science and engineering, by field: 2009–14

a In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study. The study identified potentially eligible but not previously surveyed U.S. academic institutions with master’s- or doctorate-granting programs in science, engineering, or health. A total of 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions offering mostly practitioner-based graduate degrees were determined to be ineligible.
b Includes communication, family and consumer sciences and human sciences, neuroscience, and multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

Table 2 Source Data: Excel file

% change
Characteristic 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014olda 2014newa 2009–
14old
2013–
14old
2013–
14new
2014old–
new
Science and engineering 545,685 556,532 560,941 561,418 570,300 587,161 601,883 7.6 3.0 5.5 2.5
Science 401,008 407,291 414,440 413,033 417,251 425,148 437,395 6.0 1.9 4.8 2.9
Agricultural sciences 15,200 15,656 16,129 16,234 16,429 16,947 17,505 11.5 3.2 6.5 3.3
Biological sciences 73,304 74,928 75,423 76,447 76,649 76,029 78,490 3.7 -0.8 2.4 3.2
Computer sciences 51,161 51,546 51,234 51,789 56,339 68,766 76,546 34.4 22.1 35.9 11.3
Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 14,839 15,655 15,820 16,069 15,816 15,423 15,710 3.9 -2.5 -0.7 1.9
Mathematics and statistics 22,226 23,136 23,801 24,575 24,804 25,502 25,874 14.7 2.8 4.3 1.5
Physical sciences 38,149 38,973 39,694 39,928 40,019 40,196 40,332 5.4 0.4 0.8 0.3
Psychology 56,184 53,419 54,486 54,117 54,102 50,938 48,833 -9.3 -5.8 -9.7 -4.1
Social sciences 107,820 109,220 111,661 108,169 107,278 104,445 105,742 -3.1 -2.6 -1.4 1.2
Other sciencesb 22,125 24,758 26,192 25,705 25,815 26,902 28,363 21.6 4.2 9.9 5.4
Engineering 144,677 149,241 146,501 148,385 153,049 162,013 164,488 12.0 5.9 7.5 1.5
Aerospace engineering 5,266 5,540 5,691 5,069 5,181 5,116 5,116 -2.8 -1.3 -1.3 0.0
Architecture 6,804 6,795 3,111 2,363 2,176 1,812 1,817 -73.4 -16.7 -16.5 0.3
Biomedical engineering 7,904 8,497 9,175 9,157 9,198 9,510 9,510 20.3 3.4 3.4 0.0
Chemical engineering 8,188 8,668 8,828 9,222 9,698 9,853 9,870 20.3 1.6 1.8 0.2
Civil engineering 18,638 19,559 19,596 19,922 20,110 20,660 20,789 10.8 2.7 3.4 0.6
Electrical engineering 41,218 41,336 41,580 42,347 45,562 50,051 51,909 21.4 9.9 13.9 3.7
Industrial and manufacturing engineering 15,825 15,205 14,494 14,469 14,363 14,659 14,845 -7.4 2.1 3.4 1.3
Mechanical engineering 21,243 22,509 21,883 23,088 24,087 25,508 25,651 20.1 5.9 6.5 0.6
Metallurgical and materials engineering 5,863 6,274 6,649 6,985 7,144 7,473 7,518 27.5 4.6 5.2 0.6
Other engineering 13,728 14,858 15,494 15,763 15,530 17,371 17,463 26.5 11.9 12.4 0.5

Graduate enrollment in most of the engineering fields has grown by at least 20% over the last 5 years (2009–14old). The field with the largest enrollment decline over the same period was architecture, but this drop is likely due to the exclusion of landscape architecture as an eligible field starting in 2011. Enrollment in the "other engineering" field, which includes petroleum engineering and other smaller engineering fields, grew by 11.9% in 2013–14old.

Graduate enrollment in psychology and the social sciences declined 5.8% and 2.6%, respectively, from 2013 to 2014old. Even with the influx of 1,279 graduate students in the social sciences from the frame update, the field's overall graduate enrollment remained lower than in 2013. The frame update also resulted in a net decline of 2,105 graduate students in psychology, leading to a 9.7% overall decline in graduate enrollments from 2013 to 2014new.

Postdoctoral Appointees in S&E

The GSS also collects information about postdocs employed at U.S. postsecondary institutions (and their affiliates, such as research centers and hospitals) with SEH graduate programs. A total of 63,593 SEH postdocs were reported in 2014 with 44,623 postdocs working in S&E (table 3; 2014new). These counts represent a 2.7% in total SEH postdocs and a 2.8% increase in S&E postdocs over the 2013 totals (2013–2014new). In contrast to the graduate student enrollments, the change in postdoc counts is primarily because of the institution frame update. Only 437 (26.5%) of the overall 1,651 new SEH postdocs were from extant institutions.

TABLE 3. Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by sex, citizenship, race, ethnicity, and field: 2010–14

a In 2010, the postdoctorate (postdoc) section of the survey was expanded, and significant effort was made to ensure that appropriate personnel were providing postdoc data. Thus, the comparisons between 2010 and later years are likely to show the actual growth in postdoctoral appointments compared to the earlier years. More information on the changes to the postdoc data collection is available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13334/.
b Postdoc data from 2010 and 2011 were reimputed following the 2012 data collection; these data supersede those contained in previous reports.
c In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study. The study identified potentially eligible but not previously surveyed U.S. academic institutions with master's- or doctorate-granting programs in science, engineering, or health. A total of 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions offering mostly practitioner-based graduate degrees were determined to be ineligible.
d Race and ethnicity data are available for U.S. citizens and permanent residents only.
e Includes communication, family and consumer sciences and human sciences, neuroscience, and multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

Table 3 Source Data: Excel file

% change
Characteristic 2010a,b 2011b 2012 2013 2014oldc 2014newc 2010–
14old
2013–
14old
2013–
14new
2014old–
new
All survey fields 63,439 62,639 62,851 61,942 62,379 63,593 -1.7 0.7 2.7 1.9
Science and engineering 44,320 44,121 43,841 43,395 43,476 44,623 -1.9 0.2 2.8 2.6
Male 28,531 28,314 28,176 27,858 27,920 28,618 -2.1 0.2 2.7 2.5
Female 15,789 15,807 15,665 15,537 15,556 16,005 -1.5 0.1 3.0 2.9
U.S. citizens and permanent residentsd 20,430 20,340 20,214 20,257 20,018 20,453 -2.0 -1.2 1.0 2.2
Hispanic or Latino 813 901 862 961 978 1,020 20.3 1.8 6.1 4.3
Not Hispanic or Latino
American Indian or Alaska Native 62 66 51 71 63 65 1.6 -11.3 -8.5 3.2
Asian 3,592 3,502 3,330 3,526 3,374 3,489 -6.1 -4.3 -1.0 3.4
Black or African American 564 610 615 667 690 702 22.3 3.4 5.2 1.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 53 53 63 50 52 53 -1.9 4.0 6.0 1.9
White 11,980 11,965 11,835 11,953 11,739 11,994 -2.0 -1.8 0.3 2.2
More than one race 81 161 112 165 162 168 100.0 -1.8 1.8 3.7
Unknown ethnicity and race 3,285 3,082 3,346 2,864 2,960 2,962 -9.9 3.4 3.4 0.1
Temporary visa holders 23,890 23,781 23,627 23,138 23,458 24,170 -1.8 1.4 4.5 3.0
Science 37,351 37,335 36,738 36,289 36,184 37,316 -3.1 -0.3 2.8 3.1
Agricultural sciences 1,190 1,256 1,290 1,319 1,395 1,402 17.2 5.8 6.3 0.5
Biological sciences 21,726 21,107 20,086 19,330 18,749 19,554 -13.7 -3.0 1.2 4.3
Computer sciences 763 759 760 765 833 834 9.2 8.9 9.0 0.1
Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,740 1,774 1,956 2,032 2,059 2,061 18.3 1.3 1.4 0.1
Mathematics and statistics 791 830 902 932 956 959 20.9 2.6 2.9 0.3
Physical sciences 7,583 7,490 7,430 7,197 7,089 7,277 -6.5 -1.5 1.1 2.7
Psychology 1,132 1,124 1,132 1,023 1,062 1,066 -6.2 3.8 4.2 0.4
Social sciences 711 774 799 938 1,050 1,051 47.7 11.9 12.0 0.1
Other sciencese 1,715 2,221 2,383 2,753 2,991 3,112 74.4 8.6 13.0 4.0
Engineering 6,969 6,786 7,103 7,106 7,292 7,307 4.6 2.6 2.8 0.2
Aerospace engineering 212 202 170 202 220 220 3.8 8.9 8.9 0.0
Architecture 10 16 6 17 14 14 40.0 -17.6 -17.6 0.0
Biomedical engineering 1,023 1,069 1,161 1,103 1,196 1,198 16.9 8.4 8.6 0.2
Chemical engineering 1,077 1,137 1,098 1,230 1,244 1,244 15.5 1.1 1.1 0.0
Civil engineering 571 551 590 587 629 629 10.2 7.2 7.2 0.0
Electrical engineering 1,095 1,035 1,152 1,180 1,177 1,179 7.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.2
Industrial and manufacturing engineering 151 121 127 133 131 131 -13.2 -1.5 -1.5 0.0
Mechanical engineering 1,021 889 985 1,034 1,055 1,058 3.3 2.0 2.3 0.3
Metallurgical and materials engineering 841 860 854 809 776 780 -7.7 -4.1 -3.6 0.5
Other engineering 968 906 960 811 850 854 -12.2 4.8 5.3 0.5
Health 19,119 18,518 19,010 18,547 18,903 18,970 -1.1 1.9 2.3 0.4

The frame update added 1,147 S&E postdocs, resulting in a 2.6% increase in the number of S&E postdocs (2014old–new). The frame update increased the number of women S&E postdocs by 2.9%, compared with 2.5% for men. Foreign S&E postdocs increased by 3.0%, compared with 2.2% for U.S. citizen and permanent resident postdocs. The number of S&E postdocs who were U.S. citizens or permanent residents, white, or in the biological sciences and physical sciences all declined within the extant institutions (2013–14old), but rose overall because of data from the new institutions included in the frame update (2014new).

Looking at the 4-year trends (2010–14old), the growth of black or African American and Hispanic or Latino S&E postdocs outpaced the growth of S&E postdocs among all other ethnic and racial groups. Since 2010, the number of black or African American postdocs in S&E has increased by 22.3%, and the number of Hispanic or Latino postdocs in S&E has increased by 20.3%. Despite this growth, these groups are still underrepresented in the S&E postdoc population. In 2014, there were 1,020 Hispanic or Latino and 702 black or African American postdocs in S&E, representing only 8.4% of total U.S. citizen and permanent resident postdocs in S&E.

The overall number of postdocs in the sciences remained relatively stable from 2013 to 2014, but there was variation in their composition by field. For the fourth straight year, the number of postdocs in the agricultural sciences; earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences; mathematics and statistics; social sciences; and other sciences (including multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies) increased. Postdocs in the computer sciences also grew substantially by 9% from 2013. Extant institutions reported more than 1,000 postdocs in the social sciences for the first time, making the social sciences one of the fastest-growing postdoc fields (up 11.9% from 2013 and 47.7% from 2010 to 2014old).

Biological sciences (almost 20,000 postdocs) and physical sciences (more than 7,000 postdocs) still dominate the S&E postdoc fields yet continued to show a slow decline. From 2013 to 2014old, the number of postdocs in biological sciences dropped by 3.0% while physical sciences declined by 1.5%. Since 2010, postdocs in these two traditional fields have declined 13.7% and 6.5%, respectively.

The 2.8% increase in engineering postdocs was largely (2.6%) due to growth from extant institutions. Chemical, biomedical, electrical, and mechanical engineering fields employed the largest number of postdocs (more than 1,000 in each field).

Data Sources and Limitations

Conducted since 1966, the GSS is an annual survey of all academic institutions in the United States that grant research-based master's or doctoral degrees in SEH fields. The 2014 GSS collected data from 14,845 organizational units (departments, programs, affiliated research centers, and health care facilities) at 706 eligible institutions and their affiliates in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The institutional response rate was 99.0%. An overview of the survey is available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvygradpostdoc/.

In 2014, 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions that offer predominantly practitioner-oriented degree programs were removed. Of the 1,275 new units added in 2014, 791 units were from extant institutions and 484 units were from new institutions. See "Technical Information" in Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2014 data tables and a forthcoming report examining the impact of frame changes on GSS trend data at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/gradpostdoc/ for more information.

GSS health fields are collected under the advisement of NIH. These GSS fields make up about one-third of all health fields in the U.S. Department of Education's Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) taxonomy.[5] NIH information on trends seen within these selected health fields can be found at https://report.nih.gov/nihdatabook/.

In 2011, the GSS field taxonomy was updated to conform to the 2010 CIP. The impact on overall GSS counts as a result of this change was minimal. See appendix A, "Technical Notes" in Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2011 (NSF 13-331) for additional information about the 2011 GSS field taxonomy updates.

Data tables from the 2014 GSS are available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvygradpostdoc/. For more information, contact NCSES author Kelly Kang.

Notes

[1] Caren A. Arbeit and Peter Einaudi, RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194.

[2] Kelly H. Kang, Human Resources Statistics Program, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965, Arlington, VA 22230 (kkang@nsf.gov; 703-292-7796).

[3] In 2014, the survey frame was updated following a comprehensive frame evaluation study. A total of 151 newly eligible institutions were added, and two private for-profit institutions offering mostly practitioner-based graduate degrees were determined to be ineligible. This frame update added a net total of 14,722 students in science and engineering, an increase of 2.5% over the previous frame.

[4] See "Technical Information" in Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2014 data tables and a forthcoming report examining the impact of frame changes on GSS trend data at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/gradpostdoc/ for more information.

[5] The CIP provides a taxonomic scheme that supports the consistent reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. CIP was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics in 1980, with revisions occurring in 1985, 1990, 2000, and 2010; see http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/.