In every broad field of study, the share of doctorates awarded to temporary visa holders is larger in 2015 than it was 20 years earlier. In 2015, temporary visa holders earned the majority of doctorates awarded in engineering and in mathematics and computer sciences (figure C).
Doctorates awarded, by citizenship and broad field of study: 1995 and 2015
|Field and year||U.S. citizens and permanent residents||Temporary visa holders|
|Physical sciences and earth sciences|
|Mathematics and computer sciences|
|Psychology and social sciences|
|Humanities and arts|
|Other non-S&E fields|
S&E = science and engineering.
NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of doctorate recipients for whom citizenship was reported.
- SOURCE: Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities 2015. Related detailed data: table 17.