The nonprofit sector is one of four major sectors of the economy, along with business, government, and higher education, that performs or funds research and development. The FY 2016 Nonprofit Research Activities Survey marks the first nationally representative collection of R&D data from the nonprofit sector in more than 20 years. This working paper presents the results of that effort, followed by a discussion of the methodology, alternative estimates to help assess the accuracy of results, and lessons learned that can inform future data collections. The survey was conducted by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.