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Chapter 2. Higher Education in Science and Engineering


Distance education: Formal education process in which the student and instructor are not in the same place.

First university degree: A terminal undergraduate degree program; these degrees are classified as level 5A in the International Standard Classification of Education, which is developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, although individual countries use different names for the first terminal degree (e.g., laureata in Italy, diplome in Germany, maîtrise in France, and bachelor's degree in the United States and in Asian countries).

Internationally mobile students: Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for the purposes of education and are now enrolled outside their country of origin.

Net price: The published price of an undergraduate college education minus the average grant aid and tax benefits that students receive.

Online education: A type of distance education where the medium of instruction is computer technology via the Internet.

Tertiary type A programs: Higher education programs that are largely theory-based and designed to provide sufficient qualifications for entry to advanced research programs and to professions with high skill requirements, such as medicine, dentistry, or architecture. These programs have a minimum duration of 3 years, although they typically last 4 or more years and correspond to bachelor's or master's degrees in the United States.

Tertiary type B programs: Higher education programs that focus on practical, technical, or occupational skills for direct entry into the labor market and have a minimum duration of 2 years. These programs correspond to associate's degrees in the United States.

Underrepresented minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives are considered to be underrepresented minorities in S&E.