Table 4-A
Top 10 U.S. states in R&D performance, by sector and intensity: 2008
    All R&Da   Sector Ranking   R&D intensity (R&D/GDP ratio)
Rank   State Amount (current $millions)   Business   U&C   Federal intramural
and FFRDCb
  State R&D/GDP (%) GDP (current $billions)
1   California 81,323   California   California   Maryland   New Mexico 7.58 78.0
2   New Jersey 20,713   New Jersey   New York   California   District of Columbia 6.15 96.8
3   Texas 20,316   Texas   Texas   New Mexico   Maryland 5.92 280.5
4   Massachusetts 20,090   Massachusetts   Maryland   District of Columbia   Massachusetts 5.53 363.1
5   Washington 16,696   Washington   Pennsylvania   Virginia   Connecticut 5.10 222.2
6   Maryland 16,605   Michigan   Massachusetts   Massachusetts   Washington 4.96 336.3
7   New York 16,486   New York   North Carolina   Tennessee   New Jersey 4.28 484.3
8   Michigan 15,507   Connecticut   Illinois   Washington   New Hampshire 4.24 58.8
9   Pennsylvania 13,068   Pennsylvania   Ohio   Illinois   California 4.22 1,925.5
10   Illinois 11,961   Illinois   Michigan   Alabama   Michigan 4.12 376.2

FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; GDP = gross domestic product; U&C = universities and colleges

aIncludes in-state total R&D performance of business sector, universities and colleges, federal agencies, FFRDCs, and federally financed nonprofit R&D.
bIncludes costs associated with administration of intramural and extramural programs by federal personnel and actual intramural R&D performance.

NOTES: Small differences in parameters for state rankings may not be significant. Rankings do not account for the margin of error of the estimates from sample surveys.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series). State GDP data are from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. See appendix tables 4-11 and 4-12.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012