Table 4-4
International comparisons of gross domestic expenditures on R&D and R&D share of gross domestic product, by region/country/economy: 2011 or most recent year
 
Region/country/economy  GERD
(PPP
$millions)
GERD/GDP
(%)
    Region/country/economy GERD
(PPP
$millions)
GERD/GDP
(%)
 
North America Middle East
United States (2011)a 429,143.0 2.85 Turkey (2011) 10,826.9 0.86
Canada (2011) 24,289.3 1.74 Israel (2011) 9,822.7 4.38
Mexico (2011) 8,209.4 0.43 Iran (2008) 6,432.2 0.79
 
South America Africa
Brazil (2010) 25,340.2 1.16 South Africa (2009) 4,416.2 0.87
Argentina (2011) 4,640.6 0.65 Egypt (2011) 2,230.6 0.43
Chile (2010) 1,331.4 0.42 Morocco (2010) 1,115.6 0.73
Colombia (2010) 856.7 0.16 Tunisia (2009) 1,055.9 1.10
 
Europe Central Asia
Germany (2011) 93,055.5 2.88 Russian Federation (2011) 35,045.1 1.09
France (2011) 51,891.0 2.24
United Kingdom (2011) 39,627.1 1.77 South Asia
Italy (2011) 24,812.1 1.25 India (2007) 24,305.9 0.76
Spain (2011) 19,763.1 1.33 Pakistan (2011) 1,618.5 0.33
Netherlands (2011) 14,581.5 2.04
Sweden (2011) 13,216.2 3.37 East and Southeast Asia
Switzerland (2008) 10,525.2 2.87 China (2011) 208,171.8 1.84
Austria (2011) 9,761.9 2.75 Japan (2011) 146,537.3 3.39
Belgium (2011) 8,719.4 2.04 South Korea (2011) 59,890.0 4.03
Finland (2011) 7,634.8 3.78 Taiwan (2011) 26,493.1 3.02
Denmark (2011) 7,052.4 3.09 Singapore (2011) 7,060.2 2.23
Poland (2011) 6,227.9 0.76 Malaysia (2011) 4,953.4 1.07
Czech Republic (2011) 5,086.5 1.85 Thailand (2009) 1,355.8 0.25
Norway (2011) 5,006.7 1.66 Indonesia (2009) 802.3 0.08
Portugal (2011) 4,037.6 1.49
Ireland (2011) 3,223.0 1.70 Australia, Oceania
Hungary (2011) 2,581.9 1.21 Australia (2010) 20,578.1 2.20
Ukraine (2011) 2,400.0 0.73 New Zealand (2011) 1,772.1 1.30
Greece (2007) 1,866.8 0.60
Romania (2011) 1,648.5 0.50 Selected country groups
Slovenia (2011) 1,387.8 2.47 European Union (2011) 320,455.9 1.94
Belarus (2011) 1,074.1 0.76 OECD (2011) 1,034,024.3 2.37
Slovak Republic (2011) 882.3 0.68 G20 (2011) 1,323,147.2 2.02
Luxembourg (2011) 656.2 1.43
Croatia (2011) 642.9 0.75
Serbia (2011) 633.9 0.73
Bulgaria (2011) 632.6 0.57
 

G20 = Group of Twenty; GDP = gross domestic product; GERD = gross expenditures (domestic) on R&D; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PPP = purchasing power parity.

Figures for the United States in this table may differ slightly from those cited earlier in the chapter. Data here reflect international standards for calculating GERD, which vary slightly from the National Science Foundation’s protocol for tallying U.S. total R&D.

NOTES: The table includes countries with annual GERD of $500 million or more. Year of data is listed in parentheses. Foreign currencies are converted to dollars through PPPs. Countries are grouped according to the regions described by The World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. No countries in the Central American and Caribbean region had annual GERD of $500 million or more. Data for Israel are civilian R&D only. See sources below for GERD statistics on additional countries.

SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators (2013/1); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx, table 25, accessed August 2013.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014