Table 4-5
Gross expenditures on R&D for selected countries, by performing sector and funding sources: 2011 or most recent year
 
Country GERD PPP
($billions)
Share of total (%)
Business Government Higher education Private nonprofit
 
R&D performance
United States (2011)a 429.1 68.5 12.7 14.6 4.3
China (2011) 208.2 75.7 16.3 7.9 0.0
Japan (2011) 146.5 77.0 8.4 13.2 1.5
Germany (2011) 93.1 67.3 14.7 18.0 **
South Korea (2011) 59.9 76.5 11.7 10.1 1.6
France (2011) 51.9 63.4 14.1 21.2 1.2
United Kingdom (2011) 39.6 61.5 9.3 26.9 2.4
R&D funding sources
United States (2011)a, b 429.1 58.6 31.2 6.4 3.8
China (2011) 208.2 73.9 21.7 NA 1.3
Japan (2011) 146.5 76.5 16.4 6.6 0.5
Germany (2010) 93.1 65.6 30.3 0.2 3.9
South Korea (2011) 59.9 73.7 24.9 1.2 0.2
France (2010) 51.9 53.5 37.0 1.8 7.6
United Kingdom (2011) 39.6 44.6 32.2 6.2 17.0
 

** = included in data for other performing sectors; NA = not available.

GERD = gross expenditures on R&D; PPP = purchasing power parity.

Figures for the United States in this table reflect international standards for calculating GERD, which vary slightly from the National Science Foundation’s protocol for tallying U.S. total R&D.
b The data for U.S. funding from abroad include foreign funding for business R&D and higher education R&D.

NOTES: The table includes the top seven R&D-performing countries. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding. Data years are listed in parentheses.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series); Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators (2013/1).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014