Table 4-A
Top 10 U.S. states in R&D performance, by sector and intensity: 2010
  All R&Da   Sector ranking   R&D intensity (R&D/GDP ratio)
Rank   State Amount
Business Universities
and colleges
Federal intramural
and FFRDCsb
State R&D/GDP (%) GDP
(current $billions)
1 California 81,005 California California Maryland New Mexico 8.07 77.1
2 Massachusetts  20,657 New Jersey New York California Maryland 6.28 293.3
3 Texas 19,504 Texas Texas New Mexico Massachusetts  5.47 377.8
4 Maryland 18,429 Massachusetts  Maryland Virginia Washington 4.91 339.8
5 New Jersey 17,876 Washington Pennsylvania District of Columbia  California 4.31 1,877.6
6 New York 17,141 Illinois Massachusetts  Massachusetts  Michigan 3.99 368.4
7 Washington 16,685 Michigan North Carolina Tennessee Missouri 3.80 243.4
8 Illinois 15,820 New York Illinois Alabama New Jersey 3.72 480.4
9 Michigan 14,702 Pennsylvania Ohio Washington Delaware 3.64 64.0
10 Pennsylvania 13,074 Missouri Michigan Illinois New Hampshire  3.50 61.6

FFRDC = federally funded R&D center; GDP = gross domestic product.

a Includes in-state total R&D performance of business sector, universities and colleges, federal agencies, FFRDCs, and federally financed nonprofit R&D.

b Includes costs associated with the administration of intramural and extramural programs by federal personnel and actual intramural R&D performance.

NOTES: Small differences in parameters for state rankings may not be significant. Rankings do not account for the margin of error of the estimates from sample surveys.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series). State GDP data are from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. See appendix table 4-11 and appendix table 4-12.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014