Skip all navigation and go to page content.

Chapter 8. State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Outputs

Federal R&D Obligations per Individual in Science and Engineering Occupation



Findings

  • The federal government obligated approximately $132 billion for R&D in 2011—nearly $23,000 for each person employed in an S&E occupation.
  • Federal R&D obligations per person employed in an S&E occupation ranged across the states from $4,502 to $100,028 in 2011.
  • The distribution for this indicator was highly skewed in 2011, with only 14 states and the District of Columbia above the national average. High values were reported in the District of Columbia and adjoining states and also in states where federal facilities or major defense contractors are located.
  • The majority of states in the lowest quartile for this indicator in 2011 were Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research states.


Description

This indicator represents the relationship between federal R&D spending in a state and the number of employees in the state who work in S&E occupations. Federal R&D dollars are attributed to the states in which the recipients of federal obligations are located.

Data on federal obligations for R&D come from the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, which aggregates reports from 11 federal agencies. The Department of Defense (DoD) disburses the most funding, approximately 50% of the total. The geographic distribution of DoD R&D funding to industry, mostly for development, reflects the location of prime contractors only, not the numerous subcontractors who perform much of the R&D.

S&E occupations are defined by standard occupational codes. They include engineers and computer, mathematical, life, physical, and social scientists. Managers, technicians, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel are not included.

Data on individuals in S&E occupations come from a survey of workplaces that assigns workers to a state based on where they work. Estimates do not include self-employed persons and are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from data provided by state workforce agencies. Data on people in S&E occupations are sample based.

Estimates for states with smaller populations are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations.


Data Table

Table 8-42
Federal R&D obligations per individual in science and engineering occupation, by state: 2003, 2007, and 2011
 
Federal R&D
obligations ($millions)
Individuals in S&E occupations Federal R&D obligations/individual
in S&E occupation ($)
State 2003 2007 2011 2003 2007 2011 2003 2007 2011
 
United States 100,982 124,684 132,213 4,961,550 5,591,990 5,794,980 20,353 22,297 22,815
Alabama 3,212 2,248 5,295 56,380 69,650 70,290 56,971 32,276 75,331
Alaska 399 264 203 10,600 11,990 15,680 37,642 22,018 12,946
Arizona 2,385 2,422 2,947 92,120 102,380 115,330 25,890 23,657 25,553
Arkansas 145 178 185 21,340 28,460 29,350 6,795 6,254 6,303
California 20,170 26,987 23,766 676,180 753,570 800,430 29,829 35,812 29,692
Colorado 1,735 2,798 3,956 124,140 138,990 144,750 13,976 20,131 27,330
Connecticut 2,068 2,117 2,520 81,380 80,280 76,550 25,412 26,370 32,920
Delaware 95 131 115 17,370 22,140 22,430 5,469 5,917 5,127
District of Columbia 2,986 4,278 3,245 54,890 63,150 62,660 54,400 67,743 51,787
Florida 2,854 4,078 2,572 221,070 244,140 244,970 12,910 16,704 10,499
Georgia 2,133 1,686 1,467 144,170 136,880 147,820 14,795 12,317 9,924
Hawaii 414 379 427 16,090 18,740 20,100 25,730 20,224 21,244
Idaho 218 288 461 22,150 24,330 25,950 9,842 11,837 17,765
Illinois 1,935 2,145 2,993 211,230 225,180 204,420 9,161 9,526 14,641
Indiana 574 597 910 78,410 83,080 93,640 7,320 7,186 9,718
Iowa 500 662 702 37,320 45,430 48,930 13,398 14,572 14,347
Kansas 269 318 372 51,970 50,040 51,530 5,176 6,355 7,219
Kentucky 247 222 247 45,230 49,030 51,990 5,461 4,528 4,751
Louisiana 453 419 612 41,900 38,450 42,760 10,811 10,897 14,312
Maine 167 379 181 15,020 15,960 17,490 11,119 23,747 10,349
Maryland 8,027 11,906 16,156 149,250 162,540 173,020 53,782 73,250 93,376
Massachusetts 5,492 7,529 7,789 184,690 205,610 220,670 29,736 36,618 35,297
Michigan 1,693 1,726 2,157 182,940 212,040 188,380 9,254 8,140 11,450
Minnesota 866 1,387 973 117,120 129,840 130,340 7,394 10,682 7,465
Mississippi 1,181 434 610 22,190 25,520 23,440 53,222 17,006 26,024
Missouri 1,350 1,221 1,197 84,150 102,170 106,930 16,043 11,951 11,194
Montana 131 654 182 11,450 13,240 14,960 11,441 49,396 12,166
Nebraska 168 230 263 30,710 31,420 33,800 5,471 7,320 7,781
Nevada 419 321 482 22,330 26,920 28,370 18,764 11,924 16,990
New Hampshire 512 340 408 23,430 28,450 29,260 21,852 11,951 13,944
New Jersey 2,088 2,192 2,623 161,420 186,120 182,210 12,935 11,777 14,395
New Mexico 3,090 3,478 3,553 33,600 33,440 35,520 91,964 104,007 100,028
New York 4,383 5,368 5,253 272,440 322,520 310,510 16,088 16,644 16,917
North Carolina 1,617 1,828 2,069 132,440 142,970 161,880 12,209 12,786 12,781
North Dakota 107 116 118 8,430 9,660 12,070 12,693 12,008 9,776
Ohio 2,967 3,661 3,610 177,100 196,390 208,140 16,753 18,641 17,344
Oklahoma 570 253 476 44,360 51,430 47,090 12,849 4,919 10,108
Oregon 514 506 729 61,230 67,890 NA 8,395 7,453 NA
Pennsylvania 3,989 3,360 4,528 185,560 218,890 NA 21,497 15,350 NA
Rhode Island 566 628 613 18,740 18,400 19,450 30,203 34,130 31,517
South Carolina 454 422 516 48,740 54,120 61,020 9,315 7,797 8,456
South Dakota 55 62 62 9,150 11,550 11,790 6,011 5,368 5,259
Tennessee 1,131 1,908 2,214 63,680 70,820 77,630 17,761 26,942 28,520
Texas 5,414 6,693 5,904 365,270 441,410 469,080 14,822 15,163 12,586
Utah 803 991 1,758 45,570 51,340 51,350 17,621 19,303 34,236
Vermont 201 108 126 11,420 12,760 13,100 17,601 8,464 9,618
Virginia 6,709 9,088 8,637 209,280 254,710 267,620 32,058 35,680 32,273
Washington 2,442 4,751 4,980 150,230 183,900 196,760 16,255 25,835 25,310
West Virginia 383 219 261 16,220 16,560 18,300 23,613 13,225 14,262
Wisconsin 658 671 752 93,320 99,380 102,320 7,051 6,752 7,349
Wyoming 43 37 38 6,130 8,110 8,440 7,015 4,562 4,502
 
Puerto Rico 112 86 99 19,940 23,630 20,990 5,617 3,639 4,717
 

NA = not available.

NOTES: Only 11 agencies are required to report federal R&D obligations: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security (established in 2002), Interior, and Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation. These obligations represent approximately 98% of total federal R&D obligations. Federal R&D obligations are reported in current dollars. Occupational Employment Statistics estimates for 2003 are based on November data; estimates for the remaining years are based on May data.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics Survey (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

The state data tool allows interactive exploration of the 58 indicators in this chapter. Users have the ability to choose and explore a single indicator in-depth, compare multiple indicators for preselected groups, customize their own graphics, or download data tables. Click the button below to get started.

Close