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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Outputs

State Agency R&D Expenditures per $1 Million of Gross Domestic Product



Findings

  • Nationally, state government agencies spent a total of $1.4 billion on R&D in 2011. This represented $94 for each $1 million of a state’s gross domestic product (GDP).
  • National, state agency R&D expenditures accounted for less than one-half of 1% of total R&D expenditures in 2001, 2006, and 2011; most R&D was funded by nonstate sources.
  • In 2011, the state values for this indicator ranged from $13 to $537 per $1 million of state GDP.
  • Five Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) states are among those with the highest values for this indicator, suggesting that there is a state-level effort to improve R&D infrastructure in these states, not just a federal effort. The average value of this indicator for EPSCoR states exceeded that of non-EPSCoR states from 2006 to 2011.


Description

This indicator represents the ratio of state agency R&D funding to the size of a state’s economy. State R&D expenditures include state-administered funds from all sources that support R&D performed by either a state agency or an external performer.

Data on state R&D funding cover funding administered by state government departments, agencies, independent commissions, and other state-run entities. They exclude state-run colleges and universities as well as laboratories or experiment stations controlled by state universities; funding administered by these institutions is classified as academic R&D. The data also exclude state legislatures’ direct appropriations to nonstate agencies. Some data may include expenditures for non-R&D activities such as commercialization, environmental testing, and routine survey work.

Because of differences in the survey populations, definition of covered R&D activities, and collection methods, the results of National Science Foundation surveys on state government R&D prior to 2006 are not comparable.


Data Table

Table 8-43
State agency R&D expenditures per $1 million of gross domestic product, by state: 2006, 2009, and 2011
 
State agency R&D
expenditures ($)
State GDP ($millions) State agency R&D
($)/$1 million GDP
State 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011
 
EPSCoR states 162,703,455 170,308,360 243,823,609 1,827,039 1,928,030 2,102,177 89 88 116
Non-EPSCoR states 824,010,424 1,012,336,215 1,137,595,278 11,288,411 11,746,303 12,640,405 73 86 90
Average EPSCoR
state value
na na na na na na 107 94 123
Average non-EPSCoR
state value
na na na na na na 73 93 95
 
United States 1,021,016,894 1,213,524,157 1,403,816,235 13,289,242 13,869,679 14,959,781 77 87 94
Alabama 7,269,319 12,929,167 19,684,063 159,059 166,315 178,533 46 78 110
Alaska 10,019,060 7,741,467 11,349,400 41,782 45,149 51,237 240 171 222
Arizona 37,151,471 9,363,943 18,626,577 246,099 245,216 255,989 151 38 73
Arkansas 4,869,648 11,465,214 14,705,327 93,792 99,530 106,557 52 115 138
California 107,793,045 146,793,247 149,810,643 1,798,197 1,818,627 1,908,985 60 81 78
Colorado 8,997,236 15,563,581 18,141,931 230,236 245,362 264,733 39 63 69
Connecticut 19,209,064 28,559,052 39,192,091 209,487 217,103 225,409 92 132 174
Delaware 2,812,102 1,683,562 2,609,902 56,262 60,201 64,377 50 28 41
District of Columbia 1,173,076 487,411 1,221,108 86,736 98,355 107,201 14 5 11
Florida 42,329,624 66,513,756 150,764,438 731,467 721,175 746,439 58 92 202
Georgia 10,620,188 6,662,887 11,690,663 380,530 393,964 417,438 28 17 28
Hawaii 12,067,849 13,976,364 13,103,983 60,993 64,787 70,006 198 216 187
Idaho 2,280,873 8,552,058 9,366,052 50,509 54,285 57,096 45 158 164
Illinois 37,184,281 9,570,893 17,207,125 600,668 625,423 670,247 62 15 26
Indiana 6,220,575 47,549,928 6,983,364 248,630 252,488 284,344 25 188 25
Iowa 13,564,062 37,976,643 36,992,222 124,057 134,659 146,057 109 282 253
Kansas 14,348,384 12,305,385 6,635,626 111,658 121,967 134,767 129 101 49
Kentucky 17,558,997 13,938,134 20,498,849 146,409 152,040 168,019 120 92 122
Louisiana 11,216,568 8,285,478 9,203,635 204,437 204,370 237,389 55 41 39
Maine 17,509,051 6,400,019 9,918,765 47,594 50,048 52,489 368 128 189
Maryland 24,945,119 21,093,331 20,084,540 259,792 284,724 305,175 96 74 66
Massachusetts 10,729,419 3,290,198 4,878,927 337,483 360,675 388,575 32 9 13
Michigan 75,016,589 8,630,209 9,802,873 376,208 349,195 385,123 199 25 25
Minnesota 6,219,201 16,655,913 11,653,327 245,026 257,596 279,987 25 65 42
Mississippi 2,744,882 3,623,953 7,420,851 85,854 92,614 97,533 32 39 76
Missouri 18,465,303 15,797,247 13,658,961 223,721 237,774 249,546 83 66 55
Montana 8,606,319 7,200,442 6,474,190 32,232 35,027 38,933 267 206 166
Nebraska 5,602,163 4,415,644 4,061,651 76,549 86,323 96,230 73 51 42
Nevada 1,397,463 1,510,607 1,868,869 123,754 123,115 129,421 11 12 14
New Hampshire 2,040,544 1,860,269 1,921,421 56,103 58,951 63,333 36 32 30
New Jersey 25,900,482 15,146,838 17,068,781 454,701 471,957 493,175 57 32 35
New Mexico 3,105,000 1,655,529 1,821,583 71,426 75,308 79,555 43 22 23
New York 103,597,135 151,467,015 182,736,305 1,030,373 1,080,441 1,169,436 101 140 156
North Carolina 14,344,310 40,404,202 29,611,785 378,241 412,912 436,144 38 98 68
North Dakota 21,062,090 16,415,807 8,072,257 26,063 32,204 39,992 808 510 202
Ohio 55,068,629 121,394,963 159,322,228 452,884 451,574 490,265 122 269 325
Oklahoma 8,922,036 15,930,878 20,304,740 132,176 142,078 156,058 68 112 130
Oregon 7,382,722 11,120,140 20,001,272 159,899 171,535 188,981 46 65 106
Pennsylvania 117,320,158 102,958,404 71,098,139 506,362 540,231 581,256 232 191 122
Rhode Island 150,000 1,877,724 1,947,727 46,450 47,443 49,423 3 40 39
South Carolina 22,427,746 28,599,885 47,795,394 149,104 157,825 168,716 150 181 283
South Dakota 5,791,586 4,430,602 3,629,155 32,304 37,040 41,667 179 120 87
Tennessee 5,355,000 3,752,587 3,606,726 236,313 246,617 263,626 23 15 14
Texas 28,019,645 49,381,346 47,372,367 1,054,414 1,140,218 1,321,005 27 43 36
Utah 3,214,170 26,442,711 34,418,764 100,221 112,995 124,454 32 234 277
Vermont 1,680,533 738,707 1,711,673 23,613 24,394 26,545 71 30 64
Virginia 11,579,623 17,412,519 17,241,804 374,566 404,005 433,611 31 43 40
Washington 22,834,218 13,892,247 24,500,489 300,145 332,600 357,056 76 42 69
West Virginia 6,024,577 10,357,006 35,475,338 55,205 59,575 66,109 109 174 537
Wisconsin 10,949,155 24,942,415 21,128,936 228,691 237,237 253,349 48 105 83
Wyoming 6,326,604 4,806,630 5,419,398 30,767 34,432 38,190 206 140 142
 
Puerto Rico 1,458,790 NA 537,869 88,902 NA NA 16 NA NA
 

na = not applicable; NA = not available.

EPSCoR = Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research; GDP = gross domestic product.

NOTE: For an explanation of EPSCoR and non-EPSCoR averages, see the chapter introduction.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Research and Development Expenditures (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (June 2013).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

The state data tool allows interactive exploration of the 58 indicators in this chapter. Users have the ability to choose and explore a single indicator in-depth, compare multiple indicators for preselected groups, customize their own graphics, or download data tables. Click the button below to get started.

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