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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Outputs

Academic Science and Engineering R&D per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product



Findings

  • Expenditures for research performed in academic institutions have increased by 71% between 2002 and 2012, rising from $36.3 billion to $62.1 billion.
  • In the United States, growth in academic research increased more rapidly than gross domestic product (GDP), causing the value of this indicator to increase by 16% between 2002 and 2012.
  • In 2012, the value of this indicator ranged from $1.12 to $10.44 across states.
  • The amount of spending for academic S&E R&D declined as a share of GDP in 15 states between 2002 and 2012. Ten of these states were Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) states.
  • Although non-EPSCoR states had 7.6 times the amount of spending for academic S&E R&D as EPSCoR states in 2012, the average indicator value for both groups increased between 2002 and 2012.


Description

This indicator represents the ratio of S&E R&D expenditures at a state’s colleges and universities to the size of the state’s economy. Academic R&D performers account for slightly more than half of U.S. basic research, about one-third of total research (basic plus applied), and roughly 10% of all R&D conducted in the United States. Academic R&D can be a valuable basis for future economic development.

Data on academic R&D are provided by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics and represent S&E R&D at U.S. colleges and universities with more than $150,000 in R&D expenditures.


Data Table

 
Table 8-47
Academic science and engineering R&D per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 2002, 2007, and 2012
 
Academic S&E R&D ($thousands) State GDP ($millions) Academic S&E R&D
($)/$1,000 GDP
State 2002 2007 2012 2002 2007 2012 2002 2007 2012
 
EPSCoR states 4,575,040 6,292,689 7,120,907 1,412,084 1,918,622 2,164,567 3.24 3.28 3.29
Non-EPSCoR states 31,201,781 42,290,351 53,976,573 9,027,189 11,833,059 13,173,276 3.46 3.57 4.10
Average EPSCoR state value na na na na na na 3.29 3.41 3.42
Average non-EPSCoR state value na na na na na na 3.65 3.76 4.31
 
United States 36,316,382 49,363,499 62,094,377 10,572,388 13,936,196 15,566,076 3.44 3.54 3.99
Alabama 503,470 655,245 808,194 125,168 165,665 183,547 4.02 3.96 4.40
Alaska 128,875 130,637 135,751 28,894 44,540 51,859 4.46 2.93 2.62
Arizona 531,106 782,671 987,123 177,068 259,157 266,891 3.00 3.02 3.70
Arkansas 140,813 240,321 275,503 74,167 97,470 109,557 1.90 2.47 2.51
California 4,887,918 6,733,546 8,092,820 1,387,213 1,870,916 2,003,479 3.52 3.60 4.04
Colorado 645,291 872,576 1,249,413 186,529 242,633 274,048 3.46 3.60 4.56
Connecticut 538,488 691,408 925,024 168,865 221,133 229,317 3.19 3.13 4.03
Delaware 88,319 125,663 176,743 43,672 59,592 65,984 2.02 2.11 2.68
District of Columbia 260,819 336,618 455,063 67,924 91,896 109,793 3.84 3.66 4.14
Florida 1,085,764 1,557,504 1,934,951 536,061 760,936 777,164 2.03 2.05 2.49
Georgia 1,076,706 1,388,976 1,708,803 313,952 399,579 433,569 3.43 3.48 3.94
Hawaii 172,664 274,373 328,168 44,752 64,070 72,424 3.86 4.28 4.53
Idaho 93,323 114,224 142,976 37,729 54,273 58,243 2.47 2.10 2.45
Illinois 1,441,156 1,867,003 2,270,759 497,802 626,611 695,238 2.90 2.98 3.27
Indiana 650,718 893,808 1,150,327 208,674 261,755 298,625 3.12 3.41 3.85
Iowa 485,756 586,786 695,465 98,584 134,053 152,436 4.93 4.38 4.56
Kansas 299,806 375,960 479,721 91,671 120,599 138,953 3.27 3.12 3.45
Kentucky 334,208 503,293 547,025 121,436 150,487 173,466 2.75 3.34 3.15
Louisiana 476,785 604,007 653,885 139,202 207,312 243,264 3.43 2.91 2.69
Maine 75,063 137,425 118,589 39,989 49,065 53,656 1.88 2.80 2.21
Maryland 1,895,382 2,542,336 3,316,156 206,624 271,985 317,678 9.17 9.35 10.44
Massachusetts 1,697,182 2,171,596 3,009,019 288,352 352,378 403,823 5.89 6.16 7.45
Michigan 1,233,887 1,509,953 2,091,921 351,832 386,591 400,504 3.51 3.91 5.22
Minnesota 504,398 636,920 840,731 201,559 253,374 294,729 2.50 2.51 2.85
Mississippi 289,412 410,637 437,775 69,527 92,107 101,490 4.16 4.46 4.31
Missouri 705,593 941,445 1,057,351 192,189 232,959 258,832 3.67 4.04 4.09
Montana 122,375 179,137 184,754 23,781 35,085 40,422 5.15 5.11 4.57
Nebraska 266,930 364,842 419,163 61,384 82,135 99,557 4.35 4.44 4.21
Nevada 126,713 192,081 149,323 82,764 133,185 133,584 1.53 1.44 1.12
New Hampshire 220,061 307,074 397,916 46,730 57,868 64,697 4.71 5.31 6.15
New Jersey 690,642 864,737 1,061,201 376,922 471,372 508,003 1.83 1.83 2.09
New Mexico 292,691 410,375 390,548 53,662 74,356 80,600 5.45 5.52 4.85
New York 2,765,484 3,971,652 5,166,092 822,408 1,076,255 1,205,930 3.36 3.69 4.28
North Carolina 1,279,377 1,884,244 2,619,095 302,201 396,740 455,973 4.23 4.75 5.74
North Dakota 106,078 169,468 213,666 20,439 28,549 46,016 5.19 5.94 4.64
Ohio 1,116,116 1,767,903 2,017,681 397,966 467,138 509,393 2.80 3.78 3.96
Oklahoma 282,062 298,663 412,978 98,778 140,378 160,953 2.86 2.13 2.57
Oregon 386,666 574,521 680,956 119,571 167,088 198,702 3.23 3.44 3.43
Pennsylvania 1,913,687 2,438,312 3,120,745 424,103 531,098 600,897 4.51 4.59 5.19
Rhode Island 163,052 230,281 335,957 38,135 47,293 50,956 4.28 4.87 6.59
South Carolina 399,982 569,347 563,599 124,391 157,712 176,217 3.22 3.61 3.20
South Dakota 38,449 81,544 123,383 27,610 34,885 42,464 1.39 2.34 2.91
Tennessee 491,274 761,388 968,317 193,069 242,220 277,036 2.54 3.14 3.50
Texas 2,535,237 3,417,082 4,413,601 782,780 1,147,404 1,397,369 3.24 2.98 3.16
Utah 359,556 414,690 608,199 74,603 108,474 130,486 4.82 3.82 4.66
Vermont 90,189 115,025 119,802 19,599 24,043 27,296 4.60 4.78 4.39
Virginia 693,668 971,377 1,283,852 290,904 389,570 445,876 2.38 2.49 2.88
Washington 784,186 981,229 1,376,467 237,117 325,118 375,730 3.31 3.02 3.66
West Virginia 100,830 167,208 183,510 44,533 56,864 69,380 2.26 2.94 2.64
Wisconsin 806,543 1,066,688 1,330,504 190,241 236,522 261,548 4.24 4.51 5.09
Wyoming 41,632 79,700 63,812 19,262 33,708 38,422 2.16 2.36 1.66
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA 74,827 93,263 NA NA NA NA
 

na = not applicable; NA = not available.

EPSCoR = Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research; GDP = gross domestic product.

NOTES: Academic R&D is reported for institutions with R&D over $150,000. For an explanation of EPSCoR and non-EPSCoR averages, see the chapter introduction.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (June 2013).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

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