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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs

Academic Science and Engineering Article Output per $1 Million of Academic S&E R&D



Findings

  • From 2003 to 2012, the number of academic S&E publications rose from about 148,000 to about 163,000—an increase of 10% that may reflect both an increase in publications and an increase in the number of journals in the Thomson Reuters database.
  • In 2012, academic researchers produced an average of 2.62 publications per $1 million of academic R&D, compared with 3.71 in 2003. This partly reflects the effect of general price inflation but may also indicate rising academic research costs.
  • The value of this indicator ranged from 1.62 to 4.08 across the states in 2012.
  • Between 2003 and 2012, the value for this indicator decreased 29% nationwide and in all states but Wyoming, Alaska, Nevada, and Vermont.


Description

This indicator represents the relationship between the number of academic S&E publications and the amount of money expended for academic R&D. Academic institutions include 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges or universities, medical schools, and university-affiliated research centers. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions. It may also reflect variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles that appear in a set of journals tracked by Thomson Reuters in the Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. Academic article output is based on the most recent journal set; data for earlier years may differ slightly from previous publications due to changes in the journal set. Articles with authors from different institutions were counted fractionally. For instance, for a publication with authors at N institutions, each institution would be credited with 1/N of the article.


Data Table

Table 8-50
Academic science and engineering article output per $1 million of academic S&E R&D, by state: 2003, 2008, and 2012
 
Academic S&E
article output
Academic S&E R&D
($millions)
Academic S&E articles/$1
million academic S&E R&D
State 2003 2008 2012 2003 2008 2012 2003 2008 2012
 
United States 148,487 167,518 162,877 40,002 51,736 62,097 3.71 3.24 2.62
Alabama 1,851 1,976 1,824 551 708 808 3.36 2.79 2.26
Alaska 195 285 238 142 128 136 1.37 2.23 1.75
Arizona 2,152 2,455 2,388 618 831 987 3.48 2.95 2.42
Arkansas 664 716 683 184 247 276 3.61 2.90 2.47
California 18,756 21,003 20,485 5,358 7,026 8,093 3.50 2.99 2.53
Colorado 2,615 2,854 3,044 695 924 1,249 3.76 3.09 2.44
Connecticut 2,748 3,070 3,108 595 732 925 4.62 4.19 3.36
Delaware 581 650 627 105 133 177 5.53 4.89 3.54
District of Columbia 1,060 1,106 1,096 281 375 455 3.77 2.95 2.41
Florida 4,549 5,678 5,543 1,205 1,592 1,935 3.78 3.57 2.86
Georgia 3,641 4,300 4,187 1,177 1,521 1,709 3.09 2.83 2.45
Hawaii 572 696 622 185 279 328 3.09 2.49 1.90
Idaho 305 360 322 105 113 143 2.90 3.19 2.25
Illinois 6,958 7,655 7,393 1,614 1,973 2,271 4.31 3.88 3.26
Indiana 3,022 3,645 3,681 726 955 1,150 4.16 3.82 3.20
Iowa 2,212 2,215 2,015 499 528 695 4.43 4.20 2.90
Kansas 1,235 1,292 1,327 310 404 480 3.98 3.20 2.76
Kentucky 1,434 1,604 1,471 378 499 547 3.79 3.21 2.69
Louisiana 1,759 1,753 1,645 514 660 654 3.42 2.66 2.52
Maine 267 285 300 84 128 119 3.18 2.23 2.52
Maryland 4,947 5,453 5,381 2,041 2,747 3,316 2.42 1.99 1.62
Massachusetts 9,451 10,846 10,649 1,822 2,272 3,009 5.19 4.77 3.54
Michigan 5,071 5,804 5,829 1,390 1,594 2,092 3.65 3.64 2.79
Minnesota 2,287 2,633 2,515 518 699 841 4.42 3.77 2.99
Mississippi 710 840 764 324 406 438 2.19 2.07 1.74
Missouri 3,122 3,443 3,215 807 960 1,057 3.87 3.59 3.04
Montana 363 396 376 141 186 185 2.57 2.13 2.03
Nebraska 991 1,115 1,023 301 376 419 3.29 2.97 2.44
Nevada 458 571 471 155 191 149 2.95 2.99 3.16
New Hampshire 627 681 657 252 302 398 2.49 2.25 1.65
New Jersey 3,150 3,327 3,186 754 878 1,061 4.18 3.79 3.00
New Mexico 792 835 763 307 417 391 2.58 2.00 1.95
New York 12,140 13,317 12,816 3,078 3,982 5,166 3.94 3.34 2.48
North Carolina 5,321 6,170 6,182 1,398 1,979 2,619 3.81 3.12 2.36
North Dakota 315 411 363 134 181 214 2.35 2.27 1.70
Ohio 5,090 5,635 5,302 1,268 1,827 2,018 4.01 3.08 2.63
Oklahoma 933 1,081 1,131 295 333 413 3.16 3.25 2.74
Oregon 1,650 1,974 1,853 437 595 681 3.78 3.32 2.72
Pennsylvania 8,263 9,421 8,944 2,015 2,604 3,121 4.10 3.62 2.87
Rhode Island 871 1,020 1,102 187 237 336 4.66 4.30 3.28
South Carolina 1,428 1,587 1,584 435 576 564 3.28 2.76 2.81
South Dakota 165 202 259 50 92 123 3.30 2.20 2.11
Tennessee 2,310 2,826 2,810 600 787 968 3.85 3.59 2.90
Texas 9,423 10,756 10,584 2,765 3,744 4,414 3.41 2.87 2.40
Utah 1,539 1,786 1,851 385 426 608 4.00 4.19 3.04
Vermont 383 475 434 107 117 120 3.58 4.06 3.62
Virginia 2,991 3,593 3,551 776 1,053 1,284 3.85 3.41 2.77
Washington 3,412 3,605 3,334 871 1,058 1,376 3.92 3.41 2.42
West Virginia 375 417 451 125 169 184 3.00 2.47 2.45
Wisconsin 3,129 3,445 3,237 878 1,117 1,331 3.56 3.08 2.43
Wyoming 204 255 261 60 75 64 3.40 3.40 4.08
 
Puerto Rico 212 265 243 78 NA NA 2.72 NA NA
 

NA = not available.

NOTE: Academic R&D expenditures are reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: The Patent Board special tabulations (2013) from Thomson Reuters, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/; National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Academic R&D Expenditure Survey, Higher Education R&D Survey (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

The state data tool allows interactive exploration of the 58 indicators in this chapter. Users have the ability to choose and explore a single indicator in-depth, compare multiple indicators for preselected groups, customize their own graphics, or download data tables. Click the button below to get started.

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