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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs

Academic Patents Awarded per 1,000 Science and Engineering Doctorate Holders in Academia



Findings

  • Throughout the United States, the number of new patents assigned to academic institutions increased 28% from 2001 to 2010; the number of academic S&E doctorate holders rose by 20% during the same period.
  • In 2010, states varied widely on this indicator, with values ranging from 0 to 25.5 patents per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia.
  • California showed the highest level of both academic patenting and venture capital investment.
  • The value of this indicator fluctuates over time and across states.


Description

Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the role of academic R&D in creating new products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is the volume of patents assigned to academic institutions. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.

This indicator relates the number of academic-owned utility patents to the size of the doctoral S&E workforce in academia and is one approximate measure of the degree to which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic workforce. Academia includes 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, medical schools, and university-affiliated research centers. Utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions, include any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound and represent a key measure of intellectual property. Patent assignments are made on the basis of the address of their original assignee(s). For patents with multiple U.S. university assignees from different U.S. states, the database credits each participating U.S. state as owning one patent.

S&E doctorates include those in computer sciences; mathematics; biological, agricultural, or environmental life sciences; physical sciences; social sciences; psychology; engineering; and health fields. S&E doctorate data exclude those with doctorates from foreign institutions and those older than the age of 75. For states with smaller populations, estimates of doctorate holders in academia are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations. Data for S&E doctorate holders are presented by employment location regardless of residence.


Data Table

Table 8-51
Academic patents awarded per 1,000 science and engineering doctorate holders in academia, by state: 2001, 2006, and 2010
 
Patents awarded to
academic institutions
S&E doctorate
holders in academia
Academic patents/1,000
academic S&E
doctorate holders
State 2001 2006 2010 2001 2006 2010 2001 2006 2010
 
United States 3,680 3,646 4,699 250,600 278,900 300,400 14.7 13.1 15.6
Alabama 43 31 37 3,000 3,300 3,600 14.3 9.4 10.3
Alaska 0 0 2 500 600 700 0.0 0.0 2.9
Arizona 24 38 31 3,200 3,800 3,900 7.5 10.0 7.9
Arkansas 30 27 27 1,600 1,900 2,000 18.8 14.2 13.5
California 703 728 787 25,100 27,600 31,800 28.0 26.4 24.7
Colorado 35 32 46 4,800 5,300 5,600 7.3 6.0 8.2
Connecticut 44 53 68 4,200 4,500 5,200 10.5 11.8 13.1
Delaware 5 5 20 800 800 900 6.3 6.3 22.2
District of Columbia 14 13 15 2,500 2,300 2,300 5.6 5.7 6.5
Florida 118 178 258 7,800 9,000 10,700 15.1 19.8 24.1
Georgia 87 87 139 6,300 7,400 8,400 13.8 11.8 16.5
Hawaii 8 10 5 1,500 1,600 1,600 5.3 6.3 3.1
Idaho 6 11 11 900 1,400 1,200 6.7 7.9 9.2
Illinois 151 132 191 10,600 11,400 12,200 14.2 11.6 15.7
Indiana 41 42 79 5,600 6,100 6,700 7.3 6.9 11.8
Iowa 70 57 62 3,200 3,500 3,900 21.9 16.3 15.9
Kansas 19 6 25 2,200 2,600 2,500 8.6 2.3 10.0
Kentucky 23 30 41 3,200 3,600 3,500 7.2 8.3 11.7
Louisiana 49 29 29 3,300 3,400 3,000 14.8 8.5 9.7
Maine 2 5 10 1,100 1,200 1,100 1.8 4.2 9.1
Maryland 133 148 148 5,800 7,200 7,900 22.9 20.6 18.7
Massachusetts 257 255 359 12,900 14,300 14,100 19.9 17.8 25.5
Michigan 121 136 147 8,700 9,300 10,200 13.9 14.6 14.4
Minnesota 42 39 42 5,300 5,600 6,000 7.9 7.0 7.0
Mississippi 15 14 15 2,000 2,000 1,900 7.5 7.0 7.9
Missouri 65 48 62 5,600 5,600 6,300 11.6 8.6 9.8
Montana 5 6 7 800 1,200 1,300 6.3 5.0 5.4
Nebraska 21 21 22 1,900 1,800 2,100 11.1 11.7 10.5
Nevada 4 5 10 1,300 1,600 1,400 3.1 3.1 7.1
New Hampshire 11 20 21 1,200 1,200 1,600 9.2 16.7 13.1
New Jersey 92 92 95 5,400 6,000 6,300 17.0 15.3 15.1
New Mexico 22 11 21 2,800 2,100 2,300 7.9 5.2 9.1
New York 317 317 444 20,200 21,800 23,700 15.7 14.5 18.7
North Carolina 159 137 152 8,600 9,900 10,400 18.5 13.8 14.6
North Dakota 4 4 8 700 1,000 1,100 5.7 4.0 7.3
Ohio 104 104 139 9,800 10,100 10,100 10.6 10.3 13.8
Oklahoma 23 27 40 2,800 2,800 3,300 8.2 9.6 12.1
Oregon 26 24 24 3,100 3,500 3,500 8.4 6.9 6.9
Pennsylvania 243 165 240 13,300 15,800 16,000 18.3 10.4 15.0
Rhode Island 30 14 15 1,700 2,000 1,600 17.6 7.0 9.4
South Carolina 15 23 42 2,900 3,500 3,600 5.2 6.6 11.7
South Dakota 1 0 0 600 700 700 1.7 0.0 0.0
Tennessee 53 40 53 4,700 5,500 6,000 11.3 7.3 8.8
Texas 179 217 244 13,600 16,600 19,300 13.2 13.1 12.6
Utah 51 40 79 3,000 3,500 3,500 17.0 11.4 22.6
Vermont 5 5 12 1,000 1,000 900 5.0 5.0 13.3
Virginia 51 56 107 6,500 7,600 8,400 7.8 7.4 12.7
Washington 67 50 94 6,200 7,000 7,200 10.8 7.1 13.1
West Virginia 6 2 9 1,100 1,300 1,300 5.5 1.5 6.9
Wisconsin 83 108 157 5,000 5,700 6,700 16.6 18.9 23.4
Wyoming 3 4 8 600 500 500 5.0 8.0 16.0
 
Puerto Rico 6 3 2 1,000 1,300 1,500 6.0 2.3 1.3
 

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and The Patent Board special tabulations (2013) from U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Patent Grant Bibliographic Data.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

The state data tool allows interactive exploration of the 58 indicators in this chapter. Users have the ability to choose and explore a single indicator in-depth, compare multiple indicators for preselected groups, customize their own graphics, or download data tables. Click the button below to get started.

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