Skip all navigation and go to page content.

Chapter 8. State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs

Patents Awarded per 1,000 Individuals in Science and Engineering Occupations



Findings

  • About 121,000 utility patents were awarded to inventors residing in the United States in 2012, an increase from the 88,000 utility patents awarded in 2003.
  • In 2012, the national average for this indicator was 20.3 patents per 1,000 individuals in an S&E occupation, higher than the average of 17.7 in 2003.
  • Values for individual states varied widely, ranging from 1.7 to 39.1 patents per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations in 2012.
  • Almost 27% of all 2012 U.S. utility patents were awarded to residents of California. Texas and New York were each awarded approximately 8,000 utility patents in 2012, together representing more than 13% of the national total.


Description

This indicator represents state patent activity normalized to the size of its S&E workforce, specifically employees in S&E occupations. People in S&E occupations include engineers and computer, mathematical, life, physical, and social scientists. Managers, technicians, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel are not included.

Although the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) grants several types of patents, this indicator covers only utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions. Utility patents can be granted for any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound and represent a key measure of intellectual property. USPTO classifies patents geographically according to the residence of the first-named inventor. Only U.S.-origin patents are included.

Data on individuals in S&E occupations come from a survey of workplaces that assigns workers to a state based on where they work. Estimates do not include self-employed persons and are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Situations in which workers live in one state and work in another introduce some imprecision into the calculation of this indicator. The treatment of postsecondary teachers is another source of imprecision. Due to the way the data are collected, faculty teaching in S&E fields are not included as workers in S&E occupations. Estimates for states with smaller populations are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations.


Data Table

Table 8-52
Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in science and engineering occupations, by state: 2003, 2008, and 2012
 
Patents awarded Individuals in S&E occupations Patents/1,000 individuals
in S&E occupations
State 2003 2008 2012 2003 2008 2012 2003 2008 2012
 
United States 87,864 77,480 120,989 4,961,550 5,781,460 5,968,240 17.7 13.4 20.3
Alabama 397 279 413 56,380 68,580 72,880 7.0 4.1 5.7
Alaska 37 20 28 10,600 13,260 16,260 3.5 1.5 1.7
Arizona 1,584 1,584 2,210 92,120 102,100 116,930 17.2 15.5 18.9
Arkansas 152 108 178 21,340 29,310 29,530 7.1 3.7 6.0
California 19,688 19,182 32,107 676,180 791,750 821,780 29.1 24.2 39.1
Colorado 2,069 1,621 2,442 124,140 147,000 149,020 16.7 11.0 16.4
Connecticut 1,667 1,357 2,108 81,380 80,290 78,450 20.5 16.9 26.9
Delaware 346 325 445 17,370 22,330 23,440 19.9 14.6 19.0
District of Columbia 49 68 131 54,890 63,360 63,600 0.9 1.1 2.1
Florida 2,563 2,046 3,686 221,070 248,200 248,300 11.6 8.2 14.8
Georgia 1,333 1,344 2,128 144,170 147,380 148,830 9.2 9.1 14.3
Hawaii 75 77 108 16,090 18,830 20,930 4.7 4.1 5.2
Idaho 1,803 1,162 930 22,150 23,310 25,260 81.4 49.8 36.8
Illinois 3,296 2,741 4,345 211,230 224,370 220,170 15.6 12.2 19.7
Indiana 1,385 985 1,741 78,410 90,840 94,620 17.7 10.8 18.4
Iowa 665 561 854 37,320 46,180 50,950 17.8 12.1 16.8
Kansas 428 425 1,004 51,970 54,260 50,930 8.2 7.8 19.7
Kentucky 439 413 543 45,230 NA 51,830 9.7 NA 10.5
Louisiana 390 260 364 41,900 41,790 45,920 9.3 6.2 7.9
Maine 150 113 211 15,020 17,000 17,910 10.0 6.6 11.8
Maryland 1,453 1,232 1,609 149,250 167,070 179,550 9.7 7.4 9.0
Massachusetts 3,908 3,516 5,734 184,690 217,310 229,160 21.2 16.2 25.0
Michigan 3,857 2,996 4,598 182,940 204,290 198,610 21.1 14.7 23.2
Minnesota 2,953 2,535 3,902 117,120 134,440 131,690 25.2 18.9 29.6
Mississippi 162 102 140 22,190 27,270 23,640 7.3 3.7 5.9
Missouri 823 615 1,015 84,150 105,390 109,650 9.8 5.8 9.3
Montana 121 91 119 11,450 NA 15,360 10.6 NA 7.7
Nebraska 185 191 292 30,710 31,820 34,720 6.0 6.0 8.4
Nevada 389 375 752 22,330 27,300 27,000 17.4 13.7 27.9
New Hampshire 677 477 734 23,430 29,150 28,950 28.9 16.4 25.4
New Jersey 3,522 2,722 4,224 161,420 198,060 181,480 21.8 13.7 23.3
New Mexico 390 280 417 33,600 34,560 35,310 11.6 8.1 11.8
New York 6,234 4,885 7,640 272,440 326,510 321,480 22.9 15.0 23.8
North Carolina 1,871 1,841 2,977 132,440 153,680 167,900 14.1 12.0 17.7
North Dakota 55 63 96 8,430 9,450 13,120 6.5 6.7 7.3
Ohio 3,183 2,227 3,387 177,100 206,320 NA 18.0 10.8 NA
Oklahoma 516 417 471 44,360 48,900 50,420 11.6 8.5 9.3
Oregon 1,665 1,781 2,059 61,230 70,070 75,780 27.2 25.4 27.2
Pennsylvania 3,182 2,414 3,483 185,560 227,170 NA 17.1 10.6 NA
Rhode Island 266 218 329 18,740 18,090 20,180 14.2 12.1 16.3
South Carolina 571 395 850 48,740 57,770 63,170 11.7 6.8 13.5
South Dakota 80 54 113 9,150 11,870 12,000 8.7 4.5 9.4
Tennessee 797 586 930 63,680 72,760 79,830 12.5 8.1 11.6
Texas 6,029 5,712 8,367 365,270 463,850 493,980 16.5 12.3 16.9
Utah 638 642 1,167 45,570 52,570 54,720 14.0 12.2 21.3
Vermont 429 437 487 11,420 12,360 12,870 37.6 35.4 37.8
Virginia 1,110 1,030 1,691 209,280 259,280 274,280 5.3 4.0 6.2
Washington 2,285 3,517 5,390 150,230 NA NA 15.2 NA NA
West Virginia 139 74 135 16,220 17,000 19,900 8.6 4.4 6.8
Wisconsin 1,787 1,349 1,785 93,320 101,680 103,030 19.1 13.3 17.3
Wyoming 71 35 120 6,130 8,850 8,710 11.6 4.0 13.8
 
Puerto Rico 27 14 34 19,940 22,970 21,750 1.4 0.6 1.6
 

NA = not available.

NOTES: Origin of utility patent is determined by the residence of the first-named inventor. National totals for S&E occupations include states with suppressed data. Occupational Employment Statistics estimates for 2003 are based on November data; estimates for the remaining years are based on May data.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Electronic Information Products Division/Patent Technology Monitoring Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents, 1 January 1963–31 December 2011; Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics Survey (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014


State Data Tool

The state data tool allows interactive exploration of the 58 indicators in this chapter. Users have the ability to choose and explore a single indicator in-depth, compare multiple indicators for preselected groups, customize their own graphics, or download data tables. Click the button below to get started.

Close