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European Union (EU): As of June 2013, the EU comprised 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Croatia joined the EU in July 2013. Unless otherwise noted, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data on the EU include all 28 members; data on the EU from other sources are limited to the 27 nations that were members as of June 2013.

High-technology (HT) manufacturing: Includes air- and spacecraft; pharmaceuticals; office, accounting, and computing machinery; radio, television, and communication equipment; and medical, precision, and optical instruments.

Knowledge- and technology-intensive (KTI) industries: They consist of high-technology manufacturing and knowledge-intensive service industries.

Knowledge-intensive (KI) services: Includes commercial business, financial, and communication services and largely publicly supported education and health services. Commercial KI services exclude education and health.