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  • Dollar Conversion:
  • Current
  • Constant
State 1993 1995 1997 2001 2003 2006 2008 2010 Trend
AK 0.41 0.43 0.38 0.40 0.35 0.34 0.36 0.42 0.41,0.43,0.38,0.40,0.35,0.34,0.36,0.42
AL 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.26 0.29 0.28 0.29 0.34 0.27,0.28,0.32,0.26,0.29,0.28,0.29,0.34
AR 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.19 0.23 0.16,0.18,0.20,0.22,0.23,0.22,0.19,0.23
AZ 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.27,0.28,0.29,0.29,0.29,0.30,0.30,0.32
CA 0.44 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.52 0.57 0.64 0.44,0.45,0.48,0.50,0.53,0.52,0.57,0.64
CO 0.49 0.47 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.52 0.50 0.60 0.49,0.47,0.50,0.51,0.52,0.52,0.50,0.60
CT 0.45 0.48 0.53 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.65 0.45,0.48,0.53,0.56,0.58,0.59,0.60,0.65
DC 4.69 4.89 4.49 4.95 4.84 4.38 4.20 4.79 4.69,4.89,4.49,4.95,4.84,4.38,4.20,4.79
DE 0.99 0.87 0.98 0.87 0.74 0.73 0.78 0.75 0.99,0.87,0.98,0.87,0.74,0.73,0.78,0.75
FL 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.25 0.19,0.19,0.19,0.21,0.21,0.21,0.22,0.25
GA 0.25 0.27 0.26 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.36 0.25,0.27,0.26,0.29,0.29,0.29,0.30,0.36
HI 0.43 0.41 0.44 0.44 0.51 0.45 0.52 0.50 0.43,0.41,0.44,0.44,0.51,0.45,0.52,0.50
IA 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.36 0.26,0.27,0.26,0.28,0.31,0.31,0.32,0.36
ID 0.37 0.30 0.33 0.34 0.38 0.39 0.39 0.40 0.37,0.30,0.33,0.34,0.38,0.39,0.39,0.40
IL 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.38 0.39 0.39 0.43 0.34,0.35,0.36,0.36,0.38,0.39,0.39,0.43
IN 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.34 0.38 0.27,0.27,0.25,0.32,0.32,0.32,0.34,0.38
KS 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.26,0.27,0.29,0.30,0.30,0.31,0.30,0.29
KY 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.21,0.22,0.23,0.25,0.25,0.26,0.25,0.28
LA 0.30 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.30,0.27,0.29,0.28,0.28,0.29,0.26,0.28
MA 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.89 0.94 1.00 1.07 1.16 0.73,0.74,0.74,0.89,0.94,1.00,1.07,1.16
MD 0.74 0.75 0.79 0.84 0.92 0.91 0.97 1.05 0.74,0.75,0.79,0.84,0.92,0.91,0.97,1.05
ME 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.31 0.32 0.36 0.35 0.37 0.31,0.33,0.34,0.31,0.32,0.36,0.35,0.37
MI 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.37 0.43 0.30,0.31,0.32,0.36,0.37,0.38,0.37,0.43
MN 0.33 0.34 0.38 0.41 0.40 0.43 0.45 0.50 0.33,0.34,0.38,0.41,0.40,0.43,0.45,0.50
MO 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.35 0.39 0.31,0.31,0.34,0.32,0.32,0.32,0.35,0.39
MS 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.24,0.24,0.25,0.26,0.25,0.28,0.27,0.28
MT 0.38 0.38 0.40 0.31 0.38 0.42 0.43 0.52 0.38,0.38,0.40,0.31,0.38,0.42,0.43,0.52
NC 0.36 0.35 0.36 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.36,0.35,0.36,0.43,0.44,0.44,0.47,0.50
ND 0.39 0.42 0.42 0.33 0.33 0.40 0.36 0.42 0.39,0.42,0.42,0.33,0.33,0.40,0.36,0.42
NE 0.29 0.28 0.33 0.31 0.30 0.32 0.29 0.33 0.29,0.28,0.33,0.31,0.30,0.32,0.29,0.33
NH 0.34 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.35 0.41 0.43 0.34,0.33,0.35,0.37,0.38,0.35,0.41,0.43
NJ 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.55 0.51 0.49 0.50 0.56 0.52,0.50,0.51,0.55,0.51,0.49,0.50,0.56
NM 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.94 0.97 0.94 0.86 0.93 0.90,0.85,0.98,0.94,0.97,0.94,0.86,0.93
NV 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.25 0.20,0.19,0.18,0.19,0.19,0.21,0.22,0.25
NY 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.49,0.48,0.48,0.50,0.52,0.51,0.54,0.58
OH 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.41 0.32,0.33,0.34,0.36,0.38,0.37,0.37,0.41
OK 0.30 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.30 0.30,0.28,0.30,0.27,0.29,0.27,0.27,0.30
OR 0.38 0.34 0.38 0.41 0.46 0.46 0.48 0.52 0.38,0.34,0.38,0.41,0.46,0.46,0.48,0.52
PA 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.53 0.40,0.41,0.41,0.44,0.48,0.48,0.49,0.53
PR 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.12 0.14 0.13 0.17 0.22 0.09,0.09,0.06,0.12,0.14,0.13,0.17,0.22
RI 0.43 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.59 0.43,0.48,0.48,0.50,0.60,0.55,0.53,0.59
SC 0.25 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.25,0.24,0.26,0.28,0.28,0.30,0.31,0.33
SD 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.30 0.31 0.26,0.27,0.29,0.25,0.25,0.24,0.30,0.31
TN 0.32 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.32 0.35 0.35 0.41 0.32,0.31,0.32,0.33,0.32,0.35,0.35,0.41
TX 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.30,0.31,0.30,0.33,0.33,0.33,0.36,0.38
US 0.38 0.38 0.39 0.42 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.49 0.38,0.38,0.39,0.42,0.43,0.43,0.45,0.49
UT 0.41 0.45 0.46 0.43 0.37 0.43 0.42 0.47 0.41,0.45,0.46,0.43,0.37,0.43,0.42,0.47
VA 0.43 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.52 0.51 0.54 0.57 0.43,0.44,0.46,0.49,0.52,0.51,0.54,0.57
VT 0.50 0.52 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.50 0.53 0.53 0.50,0.52,0.57,0.55,0.54,0.50,0.53,0.53
WA 0.42 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.60 0.42,0.43,0.47,0.52,0.53,0.54,0.54,0.60
WI 0.28 0.26 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.38 0.28,0.26,0.30,0.30,0.29,0.32,0.34,0.38
WV 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.30 0.26,0.28,0.27,0.25,0.27,0.26,0.26,0.30
WY 0.31 0.29 0.37 0.31 0.23 0.25 0.24 0.28 0.31,0.29,0.37,0.31,0.23,0.25,0.24,0.28
NOTES: Employed S&E doctorate holders are classified by employment lcoation; employed workers are classified by residence.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, (various years); Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics (various years).
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