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Academic R&D per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product (Dollars)

State Indicator S-46

This indicator represents the ratio of R&D expenditures at a state's colleges and universities to the size of the state's economy. Academic R&D performers account for slightly more than half of basic research, about one-third of total research (basic plus applied), and roughly 15% of all R&D conducted in the United States. Academic R&D can be a valuable basis for future economic development, and many R&D-intensive institutions of higher learning view regional economic development as an integral part of their mission.

Data on academic R&D are provided by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics Higher Education Research and Development Survey and represent R&D at U.S. colleges and universities with over $150,000 in R&D expenditures.

Data sources: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data.

  • 1st Quartile

    $4.26$9.98
  • 2nd Quartile

    $3.64$4.25
  • 3rd Quartile

    $2.88$3.61
  • 4th Quartile

    $1.15$2.84
  • No data

Footnote

NOTES: Academic R&D is reported for institutions with R&D over $150,000. The national total for the United States includes U.S. territories. The national GDP total for the United States includes Puerto Rico for all years in which data are available.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey (various years), data as of August 2017; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years), data as of May 2018; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data (various years), data as of May 2017.

Recommended Citation: National Science Board. 2018. “Academic R&D per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product.” Science and Engineering Indicators 2018, State Indicators. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation (NSB-2018-1). https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/state-indicators/indicator/academic-rd-per-1000-state-gdp

Last updated: September 27, 2018