R&D as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (Percent)
This indicator represents the extent to which R&D plays a role in a state's economy. A high value indicates that a state has a high intensity of R&D activity or a major federal R&D facility, which may support future growth in knowledge-based industries. New Mexico commonly has the greatest value for this indicator by a significant margin due to the high concentration of R&D activities at two national laboratories in the state, combined with the state’s relatively small gross domestic product.
R&D performance refers to R&D activities conducted in the state by federal and state agencies, businesses, universities, and nonprofit organizations. R&D-performing organizations either fund their own R&D activities or receive funding from other organizations. For example, a considerable portion of academic R&D performance is funded by the federal government.
The statistics on U.S. R&D discussed in this section reflect the periodic National Patterns of R&D Resources reports and data series from the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics within the National Science Foundation (NSF), which provide a comprehensive account of total U.S. R&D performance. The National Patterns data, in turn, derive from six major NSF surveys of the organizations that perform the bulk of U.S. R&D:
- Business R&D and Innovation Survey
- Higher Education Research and Development Survey
- Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development
- Survey of R&D Expenditures at Federally Funded R&D Centers
- Survey of State Government Research and Development
- Survey of Research and Development Funding and Performance by Nonprofit Organizations
The National Patterns analysis integrates R&D spending and funding data from these separate surveys into U.S. R&D performance totals, which are then reported on a calendar year basis and for the main performing sectors and funding sources.
Data sources: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data.