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State Agency R&D Expenditures per $1 Million of Gross Domestic Product (Dollars)

State Indicator S-44

This indicator represents the ratio of state agency R&D funding to the size of a state's economy. State R&D funding expenditures include state-administered funds from all sources, including the federal government, that support R&D performed by either a state agency or an external performer. Nationally, most R&D is performed by sources other than state agencies, which typically account for less than 1% of total R&D expenditures.

Data on state R&D funding cover R&D performed by intramural performers (state government departments, agencies, independent commissions, and other state-run entities) as well as extramural performers such as academic institutions, companies, and individuals.

State R&D totals can display considerable volatility between survey years due to state-specific factors. Large changes are not unusual, especially for discretionary spending items such as R&D. Because of differences in the survey populations, the definition of covered R&D activities, and collection methods, the results of the National Science Foundation surveys on state government R&D prior to 2006 are not comparable.

Data sources: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Research and Development; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data.

  • 1st Quartile

    $158.75$391.15
  • 2nd Quartile

    $71.72$157.8
  • 3rd Quartile

    $43.43$69.92
  • 4th Quartile

    $19.53$41.71
  • No data

Footnote

NA = not available.

NOTES: The national state agency R&D expenditure total reported here for the United States includes Puerto Rico; The national GDP total for the United States includes Puerto Rico.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Research and Development, data as of December 2017; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years); Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data (various years), data as of May 2017.

Recommended Citation: National Science Board. 2018. “State Agency R&D Expenditures per $1 Million of Gross Domestic Product.” Science and Engineering Indicators 2018, State Indicators. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation (NSB-2018-1). https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/state-indicators/indicator/state-rd-expenditures-to-state-gdp

Last updated: January 18, 2018