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State Agency R&D Expenditures per $1 Million of Gross Domestic Product (Dollars)

State Indicator S-44

This indicator represents the ratio of state agency R&D funding to the size of a state's economy. State R&D funding expenditures include state-administered funds from all sources, including the federal government, that support R&D performed by either a state agency or an external performer. Nationally, most R&D is performed by sources other than state agencies, which typically account for less than 1% of total R&D expenditures.

Data on state R&D funding cover R&D performed by intramural performers (state government departments, agencies, independent commissions, and other state-run entities) as well as extramural performers such as academic institutions, companies, and individuals.

State R&D totals can display considerable volatility between survey years due to state-specific factors. Large changes are not unusual, especially for discretionary spending items such as R&D. Because of differences in the survey populations, the definition of covered R&D activities, and collection methods, the results of the National Science Foundation surveys on state government R&D prior to 2006 are not comparable.

Data sources: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Research and Development; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data.

  • 1st Quartile

    $159.09$387.07
  • 2nd Quartile

    $71.65$158.83
  • 3rd Quartile

    $42.78$69.45
  • 4th Quartile

    $19.54$41.29
  • No data

Footnote

NA = not available.

NOTES: The national state agency R&D expenditure total reported here for the United States includes Puerto Rico. The national GDP total for the United States includes Puerto Rico for all years in which data are available.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Research and Development, data as of December 2017; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years), data as of May 2018; Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor, Gross Domestic Product data (various years), data as of May 2017.

Recommended Citation: National Science Board. 2018. “State Agency R&D Expenditures per $1 Million of Gross Domestic Product.” Science and Engineering Indicators 2018, State Indicators. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation (NSB-2018-1). https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/state-indicators/indicator/state-rd-expenditures-to-state-gdp

Last updated: September 27, 2018