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Discovery
Estimating the True Costs Of Invasive Species in the Great Lakes

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Photo of a spiny waterflea.

Native to northern Europe, the spiny waterflea (Bythotrephes longimanus) was first discovered in Lake Huron in 1984, and spread to all of the Great Lakes by 1987. Scientists think international cargo ships first carried the spiny waterflea to North America in their ballast water. The species has changed the food webs of the Great Lakes by causing declines in native zooplankton through direct predation, thus impacting sport and commercial fisheries.

Credit: United States Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes National Program Office


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A photo of the Great Lakes as seen from space.

An image of the Great Lakes from space.

Credit: NASA


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Photo of John Rothlisberger standing in front of one of the lakes on Notre Dame's campus.

John Rothlisberger, standing in front of one of the lakes on Notre Dame's campus, with fall foliage and two of the university's major landmarks, the Gold Dome and the Basilica, in the background.

Credit: John D. Rothlisberger, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame


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