SRS Studies Show . . .
DEGREE TYPE AFFECTS EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS:
While new science and engineering (S&E) graduates have a harder
time finding jobs than they did in the late 1980s, a master's
degree almost triples their chances and has a significant impact on starting
salaries. Engineering graduates have the best chance for
degree-related jobs and tend to earn higher salaries than science
graduates. Women engineers average slightly higher incomes than
their male colleagues.
IMMIGRATION OF S&Es UP IN 1993:
Even as overall immigration to the United States decreased, immigration
of scientists and engineers increased, with 23,534 admitted to the
United States on permanent visas. Just under 62% were engineers; nearly
half were mathematical scientists and computer specialists. Women,
mostly from Asian countries, accounted for 21.3%, up from 15.8% in
SHIFTS IN S&E GRADUATE ENROLLMENT:
Women's enrollment in graduate S&E programs grew 1.7% in 1994,
even as overall enrollment declined by 1.0%. The enrollment of S&E
minority students with U.S. citizenship increased slightly. Fields
of study in science shifted, with small decreases in physical, computer
and mathematical sciences, and aerospace, electrical, industrial,
mechanical and materials engineering. Chemical and civil engineering
had small increases.
R&D LINKED TO INNOVATION:
A pilot study of 1,000 U.S. companies found that research and development
(R&D) is performed by 84% of innovative companies, that is, those
reporting a new or technologically changed product or process in 1990-1992.
The survey was part of an international effort to understand industrial
innovation. Leading industries characterized by innovation are computer
hardware, precision instruments and equipment, pharmaceuticals, and
UNDERREPRESENTED GROUPS MAKE GAINS IN S&E:
Percentages of black, Hispanic and American Indian students taking
basic and advanced mathematics courses increased dramatically in the
last decade. The percentage of minorities taking chemistry and physics
also doubled. The outlook for S&Es with disabilities was mixed:
While they have a harder time entering the workforce, they fare well
once employed. Participation of women is increasing, although skewed
towards fields such as psychology and sociology, and away from areas
like engineering and physics.
For copies of Data Briefs and Issue Briefs on SRS studies, call SRS at (703) 292-8774, or send an e-mail