text-only page produced automatically by LIFT Text Transcoder Skip all navigation and go to page contentSkip top navigation and go to directorate navigationSkip top navigation and go to page navigation
National Science Foundation
design element
News From the Field
For the News Media
Special Reports
Research Overviews
NSF-Wide Investments
Speeches & Lectures
NSF Director's Newsletter
Multimedia Gallery
News Archive
News by Research Area
Arctic & Antarctic
Astronomy & Space
Chemistry & Materials
Earth & Environment
People & Society

Email this pagePrint this page

Press Release 05-137
Inka Textile Devices Served as Business Ledgers

Computer analysis reveals numerical and other patterns in knotted objects

Slide show of khipu artifacts
Video available View video

See examples of the khipus from the Harvard collection.
Credit and Larger Version

August 11, 2005

While most ancient cultures recorded civil matters and business transactions by inscribing characters on 2-dimensional sheets, new evidence shows Peru's original inhabitants used a 3-dimensional system of knotted strings to keep track of things.

In the Aug. 12 edition of the journal Science, Harvard University anthropologist Gary Urton and database developer Carrie Brezine say their computer analysis of 21 of the knotted objects, known as "khipu," revealed distinct patterns that help confirm the textile devices were used for record keeping and to communicate affairs of state throughout the sprawling empire of the Inka--a spelling Urton prefers because it is closer to the native Peruvian language.

Seven of the objects appeared to contain cumulative numerical data.

Deciphering the khipu information also helps explain how the vast Inka bureaucracy, which ruled the Andes from 1425 to 1532, stayed so organized without ever developing a system of 2-dimensional writing.

According to Urton, khipu were used "to record the information deemed most important to the state, which often included accounting and other data related to censuses, finance and the military." In this regard, he said, "the discovery that khipu were used as ledger books reveals a new consonance between the Inka and other ancient cultures."

The work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences program, the Dumbarton Oaks Foundation, Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

Read the Harvard news release.


Media Contacts
Steve Bradt, Harvard University, (617) 496-8070, steve_bradt@harvard.edu

Related Websites
Harvard Khipu Web Site: http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/
NSF Award for Khipu Database: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0408324
NSF Award to Decipher the Khipu: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0228038

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2016, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 12,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

 Get News Updates by Email 

Useful NSF Web Sites:
NSF Home Page: http://www.nsf.gov
NSF News: http://www.nsf.gov/news/
For the News Media: http://www.nsf.gov/news/newsroom.jsp
Science and Engineering Statistics: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/
Awards Searches: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/


Knotted "khipus" probably served as ledgers for Inka building projects like Machu Picchu.
Knotted "khipus" probably served as ledgers for Inka building projects like Machu Picchu.
Credit and Larger Version

Email this pagePrint this page
Back to Top of page