The most widely adopted measure for assessing the state of the world's oceans and fisheries led to inaccurate conclusions in nearly half the ecosystems where it was applied. A new analysis was performed by an international team of fisheries scientists and reported in the journal Nature last month. The study makes clear that the most common indicator, average catch trophic level, is a woefully inadequate measure of the status of marine fisheries. Read more in this news release.
Credit: Ed Melvin/University of Washington
A recent study shed light on how threats to the world's endangered coral reef ecosystems can be more effectively managed. The study was designed to help natural resource managers make decisions on issues such as surveillance priorities, granting of permits for use and selection of areas to monitor for climate change effects. Read more in this news release.
Scientists have recorded the deepest erupting volcano yet discovered—the West Mata Volcano, nearly 4,000 feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean near Fiji. They found a type of lava never before seen erupting from an active volcano, and for the first time observed molten lava flowing across the deep-ocean seafloor. The West Mata Volcano is producing boninite lavas, believed to be among the hottest on Earth in modern times, and a type seen before only on extinct volcanoes more than one million years old. See the video in this news release.
An interview for a magazine article led Michigan State University's Matthew Cimitile to document ongoing research on the endangered Hawaiian petrel and go probing in lava tubes for the bones of extinct and endangered birds. Uncovering extinct bird bones provides a historical record of Hawaii's natural environment. These bones tell researchers what was there before humans arrived 1,000-1,300 years ago and the changes that occurred. Knowing the composition of the natural Hawaiian environment can inform conservationists in how they manage and restore ecosystems. Learn more in this Discovery.
Credit: Matthew Cimitile
Yet another ecological scourge may earn a place on the ever-lengthening list of problems associated with climate change: the formation of some types of so-called "dead zones"—marine expanses covering hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles that become too oxygen-starved during the summer to support most life forms. Find out more in this Special Report.
Credit: Jack Barth, Oregon State University
The Division of Environmental Biology (DEB) of the Biological Sciences Directorate supports fundamental research on populations, species, communities and ecosystems. Scientific emphases range across many evolutionary and ecological patterns and processes at all spatial and temporal scales.
Boulders deposited by an ancient glacier that once covered the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii have provided more evidence of the extraordinary power and reach of global change.
December 20, 2010
Disappearing Red Shrimp
These legendary creatures may have something to teach us about survival, even as the clock is ticking on their habitats
"As a child in Hawaii, I grew up exploring. Those experiences shaped my direction and interest in science," recalls molecular biologist Scott Santos. He remembers playing along the shore and swimming in the ponds imbedded in lava rocks.
Santos later learned that these special pools contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life he remembers swimming beneath his feet were hundreds of these tiny red shrimp. Ultimately, Santos grew up and became a molecular biologist, and his life came full circle when he decided to study these unusual shrimp and the extraordinary environment they call home.
Small as they are, the shrimp just might be the perfect pet, Santos says, because they can live in a fish tank for years and never need food or even a change of water, as long as they get a little sunshine. "Economically, they are being sold as aquarium pets, but culturally, these were organisms used by the native peoples, either in fishing or in stories," explains Santos.
In fact, the shrimp are the stuff of legend. According to Hawaiian folklore, the reddish-colored crustaceans showed up en masse after a jealous Maui prince murdered his young wife. "The waters turned red with these tiny shrimp, known as öpae 'ula," he says.
Already, Santos and his team are discovering there is more to the hardy red shrimp than he realized. "We started looking at one species of shrimp and what we've found is that we can identify eight potential species based on their genetics."
With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.
Their habitats, known as anchialine environments, occur very close to the shoreline. This ecosystem shares a connection to the ocean as well as groundwater. There are only about 1,000 known in the world; 600 of which are in the Hawaiian Islands.
"The waters in the anchialine pools undergo wide swings in temperature, salinity and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun," explains Santos. "They are considered extreme environments and there has been a lot of interest in looking at things like microbes from extreme environments because they might hold potential applied value to human welfare."
But, these inland lava depressions are disappearing, along with their unique inhabitants. "They are starting to vanish very, very quickly. Unfortunately, shoreline development is growing uncontrollably in Hawaii so we're losing a lot of habitat," notes Santos.
So, it's a race against the clock to identify and study the legendary red shrimp and other creatures that manage to survive in this environment before it's gone.
"I love working on this. We're very interested in understanding what's going on with this ecosystem that is characterized by these little shrimp, and there are many things we're starting to discover," Santos adds. "It feels good knowing that my nieces and nephews might benefit from the work I'm doing to help preserve these ecosystems for future generations."