Citizenship status, race, ethnicity, sex, and country of doctorate
Of the approximately 183,000 S&E early career doctorate holders working in an academic institution, an FFRDC, or the NIH IRP, about 6 in 10 are U.S. citizens and permanent residents. The majority of these early career doctorate holders are white (78%). The proportion of black women with an early career doctorate is higher than the proportion of their male counterparts.
Among S&E early career doctorate holders with a temporary visa, nearly one-quarter earned their doctorate in another country. The top source countries are China, Germany, Canada, England, and India, accounting for about one-half of the non- U.S. degrees.